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Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 3:66-67 (article 37) 1980

The Cucumis Species Collection at the IVT

D. L. Visser and A. P. M. den Nijs

Institute for Horticultural Plant Breeding (IVT), Wageningen, The Netherlands

A Cucumis species collection has been built up at our institute in the past three years to provide a basis for the species crossing program. At this time our collection consists of 118 examined accessions of 13 species. Except for C. melo L. and C. sativus L., nearly all the material originates, as far as we know, from the African continent. One of the exceptions is a feral accession of C. dipsaceus Spach. Which was collected at Curacao. About 30% of our collection was obtained from the USDA PI collections at Experiment (GA, USA) and Ames (IA, USA), and about as many came from a number of botanical gardens. The remaining part resulted from exchanges with institutes, universities, or research workers. Until now, the collection was gathered without collecting trips. Because of this, we generally lack specific data on the origin of the material or how it was maintained. As it is indispensable for our taxonomical research and species crossing program to dispose of diversity within a species, we like to have accessions of different origin. Among nine accessions of C. africanus L. f., only three PI numbers are of known origin (3). It is not known from how many sources the other six accessions originate.

The correct classification of Cucumis species is a recurring nightmare to anyone working with this material (see e.g. 3). It is, therefore, not remarkable that many samples are misclassified. For our collection, every seed sample is first grown in the glasshouse to check its botanical name and to evaluate the special characters of the accession. ONly thereafter is the accession introduced into the collection. Each sample is documented by a herbarium sheet with seedling, young and older leaves, shoot and flowers. Individual mature fruits are photographed. Mature fruits of each species are preserved in a spirit collection, whereas those of deviating accessions are stored separately. It is not always possible to identify an accession in one season, and in doubt of purity, we like to see offspring. The value of these observations is illustrated by the fact that 30% of all samples needs to be reclassified.

Only a species such as C. metuliferus Naud. is sufficiently distinct to prevent misclassification. In all the other species misclassifications occur. Renamed accessions have been included in Table 1 as: 'formerly...' The wild cucumber with small, sub-globose to ellipsoidal bitter fruits is tested as a variety of C. sativus L. based on the restricted description of Gabaew (2). The reason for this is that we agree with e.g. Robinson and Kowalewski (6), That on the basis of crossability, C. hardwickii Royle belongs within the species C. sativus L. and is sufficiently distinct as a subspecies. The C. sativus accessions in the tables are all non-cultivated, small fruit specimens which sometimes run wild in South Asia. Cultivars are not included in this list, as is true for melons. Since there is no good dividing line between wild, feral, and cultivated melons, the feral and wild forms have been listed as just C. melo L. The classification C. melo var. agrestis Naud. (4) was only used for specimens with small (up to 6 cm long) dark green fruits that do not change color at maturity. Because we do not have clarity as yet about the taxonomic status of the species C. callous (Rottl.) Cogn., C. trignonus Roxb., and C. prophetarum L., these three taxa have not yet been included in the table (3).

Seed is increased by selfs and crosses through hand pollination on three plants in an insect-proof glasshouse. Seed from the resulting is combined and stored in one sample.

Many accessions have now been tested for their resistance against cucumber green mottle virus (CGMV) black root rot (Phomopsis sclerotioides) and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita acrita and M. javanica). The results are summarized in Table2. All tested accessions of C. africanus L. f. and C. anguria L. are resistant to CGMV. The results of C. figarei Naud. are not yet clear and within C. ficifolius A. Rich., we found one out of two accessions resistant. All accessions of the other species are susceptible. For black root rot, no resistance was observed in any of the tested material. The level of resistance to nematodes varies within the species. The highest level of resistance has been found in C. metuliferus Naud., but a number of accession within this species have partial resistance. None proved absolutely resistant. Fassuliotis (1) and Pitrat and Dumas de Vaulx (5) found resistance in C. metuliferus. The level of resistance in most accessions of C. africanus L.f. is rather high, as it is in C. ficifolius A. Rich. and C. heptadactylus Naud.

Powdery mildew resistance was evaluated following natural infestation at the end of the growing season. There appears to be a wealth of resistance to powdery mildew in the wild material. Our results largely concur with the observations of Pitrat and Dumas de Vaulx (5). Their results indicated C. anguria is susceptible whereas our five tested accessions of this species appear resistant.

For exchange, seed sample numbers have been included in Table 1 after the genebank number. As the wild species of the PI collections are readily available, these accessions have not been included in this list.

Table 1. Review of the Cucumis species collection at the IVT.

Botanical name

Gene bank no.

Seed sample no.

Source

Country of origin

Remarks (concerning fruits or names)

Cucumis africanus L. f.

0162

C77152

Naaldwijk1 - The Netherlands

-

segregating, contam. with C. dipsaceus

"

0181

C78341

Copenhagen - Denmark

-

 

"

0330

C78339

Coimbra - Portugal

-

formerly C. anguria

"

1773

C78343

Copenhagen - Denmark

-

formerly C. anguria

"

1780

C78342

Basel - Switzerland

-

 

"

1969

C79229

Ege Univ. Izmir - Turkey

-

 

C. anguria L.

0114

C79220

Burpee - USA

USA

cultivated

"

0198

C78338

Pisa - Italy

-

formerly C. anguria longipes

"

1735

C78375

Vavilov Leningrad2 - USSR

Africa

formerly C. myriocarpus

"

1758

C78340

Kew - England

-

 

"

1970

C79232

Annamalai Univ. - India

-

segregating slightly

"

1978

C79237

Liverpool - England

-

 

C. anguria var. longipes A. Meeuse

1736

C78363

Vavilov Leningrad2 - USSR

Africa

formerly C. prophetarum

"

1784

C79239

Kiev - USSR

-

segregating, some C. anguria types formerly C. myriocarpus fruit fully round, small

"

1827

C79238

R. Lower, NCSU - USA

-

 

C. dipsaceus Spach.

0163

C79260

Naaldwijk1 - The Netherlands

-

 

"

1728

C78206

IVT - collection

Curacao

 

"

1733

C79262

Vavilov Leningrad2 - USSR

Africa

 

"

1774

 

Copenhagen - Denmark

-

 

"

1783

C79263

Kiev - USSR

-

formerly C. anguria

"

1983

C79264

Montfavet3 - France

Ethiopia

 

C. ficifolius A. Rich.

1828

C79267

R. Lower, NCSU - USA

-

 

C. figarei Naud.

1706

C77168

Vavilov Leningrad2 - USSR

Sudan

formerly C. callosus

C. melo L.

1754

C78372

Leiden - The Netherlands

Vilmorin

formerly C. species

"

1755

 

Leiden - The Netherlands

Vilmorin

formerly C. species

"

1766

C78216

Osm. Univ. Hyderabad - India

-

formerly C. sativus ( Indian Cucumber)

"

1767

C78215

Osm. Univ. Hyderabad - India

-

formerly C. sativus

"

1817

C79280

Gatersleben4 - DDR

-

formerly C. melo var. agrestis

"

1819

C79281

Gatersleben4 - DDR

W. Africa

formerly C. melo var. agrestis

"

1820

C79282

Gatersleben4 - DDR

S. Africa

formerly C. melo var. agrestis

C. melo var. agrestis Naud.

1165

C78349

IVT - collection

N. Nigeria

 

"

1743

C78277

- Turkey

-

formerly C. callosus

"

1756

C78373

IVT - collection

Senegal

formerly C. species

"

1757

C78344

Canberra - Australia

Queensland

formerly C. anguria

"

1777

 

Copenhagen - Denmark

-

 

"

1818

C79283

Gatersleben4 - DDR

-

 

"

1821

C79284

Gatersleben4 - DDR

Afghanistan

 

"

1987

C79285

Montfavet3 - France

Togo

formerly C. prophetarum

C. metuliferus Naud

0164

C77165

Naaldwijk1 - The Netherlands

-

 

"

0256

 

Besancon - France

-

 

"

1734

C78351

Vavilov Leningrad2 - USSR

Africa

 

"

1747

C77352

Gatersleben4 - DDR

-

 

"

1768

C78353

Dep. Pl. Biol. Birmingham - England

-

 

"

1771

 

Dr. Provvidenti, Geneva - USA

-

 

"

1775

 

Copenhagen - Denmark

-

 

"

1822

C79289

Frankfurt - BRD

-

 

C. metuliferus Naud.

1825

C79290

R. Lower, NCSU - USA

-

 

"

1833

C70291

Salisbury - Zimbabwe

-

 

"

1836

C78318

Copenhagen - Denmark

-

 

"

1837

C79297

Mr. Howel - England

-

 

"

1985

C79298

Montfavet3 - France

-

 

"

1994

C79299

Mr. Mackiewicz - Poland

local market Georgia

 

C. myriocarpus Naud

0165

 

Naaldwijk1 - The Netherlands

-

 

"

0182

C78354

Copenhagen - Denmark

-

 

"

0184

 

Kew - England

-

 

"

0202

C78355

Poznan - Poland

-

 

"

0203

C78356

Cluy - Romania

-

 

"

0258

C78381

Besancon - France

-

formerly C. prophetarum

"

0335

 

Coimbra - Portugal

-

 

"

1737

 

Lyon - France

-

formerly C. prophetarum

"

1742

 

Lodz - Poland

-

 

"

1750

 

Gatersleben4 - DDR

-

 

"

1763

 

Gottingen - BRD

-

 

"

1776

C78226

Copenhagen - Denmark

-

 

"

1778

 

Kosice - CSSR

-

 

"

1779

C78347

Kosice - CSSR

-

formerly C. dipsaceus

"

1838

 

Debrecen - Hungary

-

 

"

1986

 

Montfavet2 - France

-

 

C. sativus L.

1592

A68040

IVT- collection

Egypt

 

"

1713

C77169

Mr. Kohli - India

Himalaya

 

"

1745

C79387

Dr. de Ruiter, The Netherlands

India

formerly C. sativus var. hardwickii

"

1759

C79321

Mr. Kohli - India

-

formerly C. sativus var. hardwickii

"

1772

C79305

IVT collection

Suriname

 

"

1829

C79306

R. Lower, NCSU-USA

-

PI 271337, small fruit selection

"

1830

C79307

R. Lower, NCSU-USA

-

PI 271338, large fruit sel., segregating

"

1964

C79315

Pretoria - South Africa

-

 

C. sativus var. hardwickii Alef.

1953

C79389

India

-

formerly C. species

"

1811

C79317

Vavilov Leningrad2 - USSR

India

long fruits

"

1823

C79318

R. Lower, NCSU-USA

-

 

"

1963

C78384

Pretoria - South Africa

-

variety "Hanzil"

C. sativus var. sikkimensis Hook.

0368

C78369

IARI - India

-

 

"

1764

C78370

Liverpool - England

-

fruit size segregating slightly

"

1977

C79324

Liverpool - England

-

fruit size segregating slightly

C. sativus var. squamosus Gab.

1812

C78383

Vavilov Leningrad2 - USSR

India

var. "Khira Cheshuichatyi"

Only a place-name as source means the Botanical Garden of that town.
1 Glasshouse Crops Research and Experimental; Station.
2 Vavilov All Union Institute of Plant Industry.
3 Station d'Amelioration des Plantes Maraicheres.
4 Zentralinstitut fur Genetik and Kulturpflanzenforschung.

Table 2. Results of disease resistance tests.

Number of accessions

CGMV

BRR

Nematodes

Powdery mildew

Species

CSC

R

S

S

0/1

1

2

3

0

1

2

Cucumis africanus L.f.

9

8

 

7

 

4

1

 

5

 

 

C. anguria L. var. anguria

8

7

 

5

 

 

2

2

5

 

 

C. anguria var. longipes A. Meeuse

3

 

1

2

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

C. dipsaceus Spach.

8

 

6

6

 

 

4

2

6

 

 

C. ficifolius A. Rich.

5

1

1

3

 

2

1

 

1

 

 

C. figarei Naud.

2

(1)

 

2

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

C. heptadactylus Naud.

1

 

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

C. meeusii C. Jeffrey

1

 

 

1

 

 

(1)

 

 

 

1

C. melo L.

12

 

3

3

 

 

 

 

3

2

3

C. melo var. agrestis Naud.

10

 

3

6

 

 

 

(2)

 

1

7

C metuliferus Naud.

16

 

12

11

1

1

5

 

8

2

 

C. myriocarpus Naud.

18

 

11

11

 

 

1

2

3

6

1

C. sativus L.

11

 

8

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

3

C. sativus var. hardwickii Alef.

5

 

4

1

 

 

1

 

 

1

4

C. sativus var. sikkimensis Hook.

5

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

C. sativus var. squamosus Gab.

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

C. zeyheri Sond.

3

 

1

3

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

CSC: Cucumis species collection; CGMV: Cucumis green mottle mosaic virus, R: resistant, S: susceptible; BRR: black root rot, number of tested accessions; Nematodes: 0/1-highly resistant, 3-highly susceptible; Powdery Mildew: 0-no mildew, 2-heavy sporulation; ( ): limited information.

Literature Cited

  1. Brown, G. B., J. R. Deakin and M. B. Wood. 1969. Identification of Cucumis species by paper chromatography of flavanoids. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 94:231-234.
  2. Chakravarthy, H. L. 1959. Monograph on Indian Cucurbitaceae - Taxonomy and distribution. Records of the Botanical Survey of India 17: 98-112.
  3. Darlington, C. D. and A. P. Wylie. 1955. Chromosome atlas of flowering plants. Allen and Unwin Ltd., London.
  4. Gamble, J. S. 1923. Flora of the presidency of Madras. Adlard & Son Ltd., London, Vol. I, 377 pp.
  5. Hooker, J. D. 1879. Flora of British India. L. Reeve & Co. Ltd., U.K., Vol. II: 619-620.
  6. Naudin, C. 1859. Revue des Cucurbitaces cultivees au Museum en. Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. 4 Bot. 12: 79-164.
  7. Robinson, R. W. and E. Kowalewski. 1978. Interspecific hybridization of Cucumis. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 1:40.
  8. Roy, R. P. 1972. Cytogenetical investigations in the Cucurbitaceae. USDA PL-480 Res. Project (Final Report). Patna Univ. 263 pp.
  9. Sambandam, C. N.and S. Chelliah. 1972. Scheme for the evaluation of cantaloupe and muskmelon varieties for the resistance to the fruit fly ( Dacus cucurbitae C.). USDA PL-480 Res. Project. Annamalai Univ. 67 pp.
  10. Singh, A. K. And R. P. Roy. 1973. Karyological studies in Cucumis. Caryologia 27: 153-160.
  11. Vavilov, N. I. 1931. Mexico and Central America as the principal centres of origin of cultivated plants of the New World. Bull. Appli. Bot. and Pl. Breed. 16: 135-199.
  12. Watt, G. 1898. Dictionary of Economic Products of India. Vol. II: 626. Periodical experts, New Delhi, India.
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