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Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 8:86-96 (Article 34) 1985

Gene List for Cucumber

Lists of the known genes for the Cucurbitaceae have been published previously in 3 installments (16, 17, 49). However, in the interest of updating and collecting the information on cucumber in one place, following is a complete list of the 88 known genes for Cucumis sativus L. We hope to continue this practice, and publish a complete list for cucumber every 4 years.

Gene symbol

Previous symbol

Character description

Reference

a

 

androecious. Produces primarily staminate flowers if recessive for F.

31

ap

 

apetalous male sterile.

22

Ar

 

Anthracnose resistance. One of several genes for resistance to Colletotrichum lagenarium.

9

B

 

Black or brown spines. Dominant to white spines on fruit.

64

B-2

C

Black spines-2. Interacts with B to produce F2 of 15 black:1 white spine.

56

B-3

C

Black spines-3. Interacts with B-4 to produce F2 of 9 black:7 white spine. B-3 from LJ90430, b-3 from MSU 41.

15

B-4

 

Black spines-4. Interacts with B-3 to produce F2 of 9 black:7 white spine. B-4 from LJ90430, b-4 from MSU 41.

15

bi

 

bitterfree. All plant parts lacking cucurbitacins.

6

bl

t

blind. Terminal bud lacking after temperature shock.

12

Bt

 

Bitter fruit. Extremely bitter flavor.

8

bu

 

bush. Shortened internodes.

47

Bw

 

Bacterial wilt resistance. Resistance to Erwinia tracheiphila.

42, 51

c

 

cream color of mature fruit. Interaction with R is evident in the F2 ratio of 9 red (R+):3 orange (Rc):3 yellow(++):1 cream (+c).

25

Cca

 

Corynespora cassicola resistance. Resistance to target leaf spot; dominant to susceptibility.

4

Ccu

 

Cladosporium cucumerinum resistance. Resistance to scab.

3, 5, 7

cd

 

chlorophyll deficient. Seedling normal at first, then becoming light green; lethal unless grafted.

11

cl

 

closed flower. Flowers do not open; male sterile.

23

cla

 

Colletotrichum lagenarium resistance. Resistance to race 1 of anthracnose; recessive to susceptibility.

4

Cm

 

Corynespora melonis resistance. Resistance to C. melonis; dominant to susceptibility.

20

Cmv

 

Cucumber mosaic virus resistance. One of several genes for resistance to CMV.

63

co

 

green corolla. Green petals and enlarged reproductive organs; female sterile.

24

cp

 

compact. Reduced internode length, poorly developed tendrils, small flowers.

27

cr

 

crinkled leaf. Leaves and seed crinkled.

43

D

g

Dull skin of fruit. Dull skin of American cultivars, dominant to glossy skin of most European cultivars.

59, 60

de

I

determinate habit. Short vine with stem terminating in flowers; modified by In-de and other genes; degree of dominance depends on gene background.

18, 25, 44

df

 

delayed flowering. Flowering delayed by long photoperiod; associated with seed dormancy.

58

dl

 

delayed growth. Reduced growth rate; shortening of hypocotyl and first internodes.

35

dm

P

downy mildew resistance. One of several genes for resistance to Pseudoperonospora cubensis.

61

dvl

dl

divided leaf.

41

dw

 

dwarf. Short internodes.

48

Es-1

 

Empty chambers-l. Carpels of fruits separated from each other, leaving a small to large cavity in the seed cell.

34

Es-2

 

Empty chambers-2. Carpels of fruits separated from each other, leaving a small to large cavity in the seed cell.

34

F

Acr
acr,
D, st

Female. High degree of female sex expression; interacts with a and M; strongly modified by environment and gene background.

60

Fba

 

Flower bud abortion. Preanthesis abortion of floral buds, ranging from 10 to 100%.

36

Foc

 

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum resistance. Resistance to fusarium wilt; dominant to susceptibility.

38

g

 

golden leaves. Golden color of lower leaves.

60

gb

n

gooseberry fruit. Small, oval- shaped fruit.

60

gi

 

ginko. Leaves reduced and distorted, resembling leaves of Gingko; sterile.

26

gl

 

glabrous. Foliage lacking trichomes; fruit without spines.

48

glb

 

glabrate. Stem and petioles glabrous, laminae slightly pubescent.

68

gy

g

gynoecious. Recessive gene for high degree of female sex expression.

33

H

 

Heavy netting of fruit. Dominant to no netting and completely linked or pleiotropic with black spines (B) and red mature fruit color (R).

25, 60

I

 

Intensifier of P. Modifies effect of P on fruit warts.

60

In-de

In(de)

intensifier of de. Reduces internode length and branching of de plants.

21

In-F

F

intensifier of female sex expression. Increases degree of female expression of F plants.

30

l

 

locule number. Many fruit locules and pentamerous androecium, 5 locules recessive to the normal number of 3.

71

1h

 

long hypoctyl.

50, 67

ls

gc

light sensitive. Pale cotyledons, reduced growth; lethal at high light intensity.

67

m

a, g,
mo

andromonoecious. Plants are andromonoecious if m+; ++ monoecious; +F gynoecious; mF hermaphroditic.

52, 60

m-2

h

andromonoecious 2. Bisexual flowers with normal ovaries.

33

mp

 

multi-pistillate. Several pistillate flowers per node, recessive to single pistillate flowers per node.

37

ms-1

 

male sterile-1. Male flowers abort before anthesis, partially female sterile.

57

ms-2

 

male sterile-2. Male flowers abort.

66

n

 

negative geotropic peduncle response. Pistillate flowers upright; recessive to pendent position of most cultivars.

44

O

V

Orange-yellow corolla color Dominant to light yellow.

60

P

 

Prominent tubercles. Prominent tubercles on yellow rind of Cucumis sativus var. tuberculatus. Incompletely dominant to brown rind without tubercles.

60

Pc

P

Parthenocarpy. Sets fruit without pollination.

45, 65

pl

 

pale lethal. Pale green cotyledons; lethal.

68

pm-1

 

powdery mildew resistance. Resistance to Sphaerotheca fuliginea.

28

pm-2

 

powdery mildew resistance. Resistance to Sphaerotheca fuliginea.

28

pm-3

 

powdery mildew resistance. Resistance to Sphaerotheca fuliginea.

28

pr

 

protruding ovary. Exserted carpels.

71

ps1

p1

pseudomonas lachrymans resistance.

19

R

 

Red mature fruit color. Inter- acts with c; linked or pleio tropic with B and H.

25

rc

 

revolute cotyledon. Cotyledons short, narrow, and cupped downwards; enlarged perianth.

70

ro

 

rosette; short internodes muskmelon-like leaves.

54

s

f,a

spine size and frequency. Many small fruit spines, characteristic of European cultivars such as 'Everyday'; recessive to the few, large spines of most American cultivars.

59, 64

sc

cm

stunted cotyledons. Small cotyledons; stunted plants; abnormal flowers.

55, 56

Sd

 

Sulfur dioxide resistance. Less than 20% leaf damage in growth chamber. Sd from 'National Pickling'; sd from 'Chipper'.

10

sp

 

short petiole. Leaf petioles of first nodes 20% the length of normal.

39

T

 

Tall plant height. Incompletely dominant to short plant height.

23

td

 

tendrilless. Tendrils lacking; associated with misshaped ovaries and brittle leaves.

53

te

 

tender skin of fruit. Thin, tender skin of European cultivars; recessive to the thick, tough skin of most American cultivars.

46, 59

Tr

 

Trimonoecious. Producing male, bisexual, and female flowers in this sequence during plant development.

32

Tu

 

Tuberculate fruit. Warty fruit, characteristic of American cultivars; dominant to the smooth, nonwarty fruits of most European cultivars.

46, 59

u

M

uniform immature fruit color. Uniform color of European cultivars such as 'Everyday' recessive to the mottled or strippled color of most American cultivars.

5, 59

ul

 

umbrella leaf.

40

v

 

virescent. Yellow leaves becoming green.

46, 60

vvi

 

variegated virescent. Yellow cotyledons, becoming green; variegated leaves.

2

w

 

white immature fruit color. Recessive to green.

13

wf

w

white flesh. Intense white flesh color; recessive to dingy white; acts with yf to produce F2 of 12 white: (++ and + wf): 3 yellow (yf +): 1 orange (yf wf).

29

Wmv

 

Watermelon mosac virus resistance. Resistance to strain 2 of watermelon mosaic virus.

14

Wmv-1-1

 

Watermelon mosaic virus-1 resistance. Resistance to strain 1 of watermelon mosaic virus. Dominant allele in 'Surinam'.

62

yc-1

 

yellow cotyledons-l. Cotyledons yellow at first, later turning green.

1

yc-2

 

yellow cotyledons-2. Virescent cotyledons.

69, 70

yf

y

yellow flesh. Yellow (yf +) or orange (yf wf) flesh color.

29

yg

gr

yellow-green immature fruit color. Recessive to dark green and epistatic to light green.

71

yp

 

yellow plant. Light yellow green foliage.

2

Literature Cited

  1. Aalders, L.E. 1959. "Yellow cotyledon", a new cucumber mutation. Canad. J. Genet. Cytol. 1:10-12.
  2. Abul-Hayja, Z. and P.H. Williams. 1976. Inheritance of 2 seedling markers in cucumber. HortScience 11:145.
  3. Abul-Hayja, Z., P.H. Williams and E.D.P. Whelan. 1975. Independence of scab and bacterial wilt resistance and ten seedling markers in cucumber. HortScience 10:423-424.
  4. Abul-Hayja, Z., P.H. Williams, and C.E. Peterson. 1978. Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose and target leaf spot in Cucumbers. Plt. Dis. Rept. 62:43-45.
  5. Andeweg, J.M. 1956. The breeding of scab-resistant frame cucumbers in the Netherlands. Euphytica 5:185-195.
  6. Andeweg, J.M. and J.W. DeBruyn. 1959. Breeding of non-bitter cucumbers. Euphytica 8:13-20.
  7. Bailey, R.M. and I.M. Burgess. 1934. Breeding cucumbers resistant to scab. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 32:474-476.
  8. Barham, W.S. 1953. The inheritance of a bitter principle in cucumbers. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 62:441-442.
  9. Barnes, W.C. and W.M. Epps. 1952. Two types of anthracnose resistance in cucumbers. Plant Dis. Reptr. 36:479-480.
  10. Bressan, R.A., L. LeCureux, L.G. Wilson, P. Filner, and L.R. Baker. 1981. Inheritance of resistance to sulfur dioxide in cucumbers. HortScience 16:332-333.
  11. Burnham, M., S.C. Phatak and C.E. Peterson. 1966. Graft-aided inheritance study of a chlorophyll deficient cucumber. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 89:386-389.
  12. Carlsson, G. 1961. Studies of blind top shoot and its effect on the yield of greenhouse cucumbers. Acta Agr. Scand. 11:160-162.
  13. Cochran, F.D. 1938. Breeding cucumbers for resistance to downy mildew. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 35:541-543.
  14. Cohen, S., E. Gertman and N. Kedar. 1971. Inheritance of resistance to melon mosaic virus in cucumbers. Phytopathology 61:253-255.
  15. Cowen, N.M. and D.B. Helsel. 1983. Inheritance of 2 genes for spine color and linkages in a cucumber cross. J. Hered. 74:308-310.
  16. Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative, Cucurbit Gene List Committee. 1979. New genes for the cucurbitaceae. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 2:49-53.
  17. Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative, Cucurbit Gene List Committee. 1982. Update of cucurbit gene list and nomenclature rules. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 5:62-66.
  18. Denna, D.W. 1971. Expression of determinate habit in cucumbers. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 96:277-279.
  19. Dessert, J.M., L.R. Baker and J.F. Fobes. 1982. Inheritance of reaction to Pseudomonas lachrymans in pickling cucumber. Euphytica 31:847-856.
  20. Es, J. van. 1958. Bladruuresistantie by Konkommers. Zaabelangen 12:116-117.
  21. George, W.L., Jr. 1970. Dioecism in cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. Genetics 64:23-28.
  22. Grimbly, P.E. 1980. An apetalous male sterile mutant in cucumber. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 3:9.
  23. Groff, D., and M.L. Odland. 1963. Inheritance of closed-flower in the cucumber. J. Hered. 54:191-192.
  24. Hutchins, A.E. 1935. The inheritance of a green flowered variation in Cucumis sativus. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 33:513.
  25. Hutchins, A.E. 1940. Inheritance in the cucumber. J. Agr. Res. 60:117-128.
  26. John, C.A. and J.D. Wilson. 1952. A "gingko leafed" mutation in the cucumber. J. Hered. 43:47-48.
  27. Kauffman, C.S. and R.L. Lower. 1976. Inheritance of an extreme dwarf plant type in the cucumber. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 101:150-151.
  28. Kooistra, E. 1968. Powdery mildew resistance in cucumber. Euphytica 17:236-244.
  29. Kooistra, E. 1971. Inheritance of fruit flesh and skin colours in powdery mildew resistant cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.). Euphytica 20:521:523.
  30. Kubicki, B. 1969. Investigations on sex determination in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.). V. Genes controlling intensity of femaleness. Genet. Polonica 10:69-86.
  31. Kubicki, B. 1969. Investigations on sex determination in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.). VI. Androecism. Genet. Polonica 10:87-99.
  32. Kubicki, B. 1969. Investigations on sex determination in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.). VII. Trimonoecism. Genet. Polonica 10:123-143.
  33. Kubicki, B. 1974. New sex types in cucumber and their uses in breeding work. Proc. XIX Internatl. Hort. Congr. 3:475-485.
  34. Kubicki, B. and A. Korzeniewska. 1983. Inheritance of the presence of empty chambers in fruit as related to other fruit characters in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.). Genet. Polonica 24:327-342.
  35. Miller, G.A. and W.L. George, Jr. 1979. Inheritance of dwarf and determinate growth habits in cucumber. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 104:114-117.
  36. Miller, J.C., Jr. and J.E. Quisenberry. 1978. Inheritance of flower bud abortion in cucumber. HortScience 13:44-45.
  37. Nandgaonkar, A.K. and L.R. Baker. 1981. Inheritance of multi-pistillate flowering habit in gynoecious pickling cucumber. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 106:755-757.
  38. Netzer, D., S. Niegro and E. Galun. 1977. A dominant gene conferring resistance to Fusarium wilt in cucumber. Phytopathology 67:525-527.
  39. Nijs, A.P.M. den and I.W. Boukema. 1983. Short petiole, a useful seedling marker for genetic studies in cucumber. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 8:8-9.
  40. Nijs, A.P.M. den and O.M.B. de Ponti. 1983. Umbrella leaf: a gene for sensitivity to low humidity in cucumber. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 6:24.
  41. Nijs, A.P.M. den and H.O. Mackiewicz. 1980. "Divided leaf", a recessive seedling marker in cucumber. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 3:24.
  42. Nuttall, W.W. and J.J. Jasmin. 1958. The inheritance of resistance to bacterial wilt (Erwinia tracheiphila E.F.SM. Holland) in cucumber. Canad. J. Plant Sci. 38:401-404.
  43. Odland, M.L. and D.W. Groff. 1963. Inheritance of crinkled-leaf cucumber. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 83:536-537.
  44. Odland, M.L. and D.W. Groff. 1963. Linkage of vine type and geotropic response with sex forms in cucumber Cucumis sativus L. Proc. Amer.Soc. Hort. Sci. 82:358-369.
  45. Pike, L.M. and C.E. Peterson. 1969. Inheritance of parthenocarpy in the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Euphytica 18:101-105.
  46. Poole, C.F. 1944. Genetics of cultivated cucurbits. J. Hered. 35:122-128.
  47. Pyzenkov, V.I. and G.A. Kosareva. 1981. A spontaneous mutant of the dwarf type. Bull. Appl. Bot. Genet. Pl. Breed. 69:15-21.
  48. Robinson, R.W. and W. Mishanec. 1964. A radiation-induced seedling marker gene for cucumbers. Vegetable Improvement Newsletter 6:2.
  49. Robinson, R.W., H.M. Munger, T.W. Whitaker and G.W. Bohn. 1976. Genes of the cucurbitaceae. HortScience 11:554-568.
  50. Robinson, R.W. and J.W. Shail. 1981. A cucumber mutant with increased hypocotyl and internode length. Cucurbit Genet Coop. Rpt. 4:19-20.
  51. Robinson, R.W. and T.W. Whitaker. 1974. Cucumis. In: R.C. King (ed.), Handbook of Genetics Vol. 2. Plenum Press, NY.
  52. Rosa, J.T. 1928. The inheritance of flower types in Cucumis and Citrullis. Hilgardia 3:233-250.
  53. Rowe, P. and J.L. Bowers. 1965. The inheritance and potential of an irradiation induced tendrilless character in cucumbers. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 86:436-441.
  54. Ruiter, A.C. de, B.J. van der Knap and R.W. Robinson. 1980. Rosette, a spontaneous cucumber mutant arising from cucumber-muskmelon mentor pollen. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 3:4.
  55. Shanmugasundarum, S. and P.H. Williams. 1971. A cotyledon marker gene in cucumbers. Vegetable Improvement Newsletter 13:4.
  56. Shanmugasundarum, S., P.H. Williams and C.E. Peterson. 1971. A recessive cotyledon marker gene in cucumber with pleiotropic effects. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 7:555-556.
  57. Shifriss, 0. 1950. Spontaneous mutations in the American varieties of Cucumis sativus L. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 55:351-357.
  58. Shifriss, 0. and W.L. George, Jr. 1965. Delayed germination and flowering in cucumbers. Nature 506:424-425.
  59. Strong, W.J. 1931. Breeding experiments with the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Sci. Agr. 11:333-346.
  60. Tkachenko, N.N. 1935. Preliminary results of a genetic investigation of the cucumber - Cucumis sativus L. Bull Appl. P1. Breed., Ser. 2, 3:311-356.
  61. Vliet, G.J.A. van and W.D. Meysing. 1974. Inheritance of resistance to Pseudoperonospora cubensis Rost. in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Euphytica 23:251-255.
  62. Wang, Y.J., R. Pro w identi and R.W. Robinson. 1984. Inheritance of resistance to watermelon mosaic virus 1 in cucumber. HortScience 19:587-588.
  63. Wasuwat, S.L. and J.C. Walker. 1961. Inheritance of resistance in cucumber to cucumber mosaic virus. Phytopathology 51:423-428.
  64. Wellington, R. 1913. Mendelian inheritance of epidermal characters in the fruit of Cucumis sativus. Science 38:61.
  65. Wellington, R. and L.R. Hawthorn. 1928. A parthenocarpic hybrid derived from a cross between an English forcing cucumber and the Arlington White Spine. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 26:97-100.
  66. Whelan, E.D.P. 1972. A cytogenetic study of a radiation-induced male sterile mutant of cucumber. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 26:97-100.
  67. Whelan, E.D.P. 1972. Inheritance of a radiation-induced light sensitive mutant of cucumber. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 97:765-767.
  68. Whelan, E.D.P. 1973. Inheritance and linkage relationship of two radiation-induced seedling mutants of cucumber. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 15:597-603.
  69. Whelan, E.D.P. and B.B. Chubey. 1973. Chlorophyll content of new cotyledon mutants of cucumber. HortScience 8:30-32.
  70. Whelan, E.D.P., P.H. Williams and A. Abul-Hayja. 1975. The inheritance of two induced cotyledon mutants of cucumber. HortScience 10:267-269.
  71. Youngner, V.B. 1952. A study of the inheritance of several characters in the cucumber. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota-St. Paul.

It is hoped that scientists will consult the above list as well as the rules of gene nomenclature for the Cucurbitaceae (17, 49) before choosing a gene name and symbol. Thus, inadvertent duplication of gene names and symbols will be prevented. The rules of gene nomenclature were adopted in order to provide guidelines for the naming and symbolizing genes previously reported and those which will be reported in the future. Scientists are urged to contact members of the Gene List Committee regarding questions in interpreting the nomenclature rules and in naming and symbolizing new genes.

Gene List Committee

  • Cucumber: T. C. Wehner
  • Muskmelon: J. D. McCreight
  • Watermelon: W. R. Henderson
  • Cucurbita spp.: C. A. John
  • Other Genera: R. W. Robinson
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Page citation: Wehner, T.C., Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative;
Created by T.C. Wehner and T. Ng, 1 June 2005; design by C.T. Glenn;
send questions to T.C. Wehner; last revised on 26 October, 2009