Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 10:92 (article 50) 1987
Anther and Ovule Culture of Cucurbita
J. W. Shail and R. W. Robinson
Horticultural Sciences Department, New York State Agricultural Experiment
Station, Geneva, NY 14456
Previous attempts to grow plants from cultured anthers have been successful
for cucumber (3) and muskmelon (2) but not for squash (1). We found that
squash pollen did not respond, other than to form pollen tubes, but longitudinal
anther segments developed callus growth in vitro. Best results
were achieved with anthers 10 to 20 mm in length. Murashige and Skoog medium
with 1 or 2 ppm 2,4-D was more successful than the other media tested, and
NAA (2 ppm) plus benzyl adenine (3 ppm) encouraged differentiation. Explants
on solid media (0.8% agar) developed better than those in liquid on a rotary
Squash varieties differed in callus formation and differentiation on
this medium. 'Gold Nugget' anthers developed a moderate amount of callus,
more than the other C. maxima cultivars tested (Buttercup,
Emerald, Oregold, and NK 530). C. moschata cv. Butternut,
unlike 'Waltham Butternut' and 'Ponca', consistently developed callus from
cultured anthers. All C. pepo cultivars tested (Straight Neck,
Caserta, Lady Godiva, Scallop, Table Queen, and Cinderella) produced callus,
but the nature of the callus and tissue formation differed for each cultivar.
Best differentiation occurred with 'Scallop' and 'Cinderella'. Root formation
occurred, particularly with 'Buttercup'and 'Scallop'. Shoot formation also
occasionally occurred with these cultivars, but plantlets were not obtained.
It was not determined if the cultured cells were haploid and of pollen origin,
or diploid and derived from the anther wall.
Excised ovules of C. pepo cultivars Scallop and Early Prolific
Straightneck did not respond well to tissue culture, but 'Black Jack' ovules
developed prolific callus growth. Organized growth developed subsequently
from the callus, but plantlets were not obtained.
Ovules excised from C. pepo cv. Black Jack, 24 to 72 hrs
after pollination with C. ecuadorerensis, produced callus
and roots but not plants when cultured. The interspecific hybrid was obtained,
however, by culturing embryos from mature fruit.
- Chang, Yin-Fu. 1981. Anther culture of Cucurbita pepo L. Thesis, Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX.
- Dryanovska, 0. A. and I. N. Ilieva. 1983. In vitro anther
and ovule cultures in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.). Compt.
Rend. Acad. Bulgre Sci. 36:1107-1110.
- Lazarte, J. E. and C. C. Sasser. 1982. Asexual embryogenesis and plantlet
development in anther culture of Cucumis sativus L. HortScience 17:88.