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Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 12:91-103 (article 38) 1989

Gene List for Cucumber

Lawrence K. Pierce and Todd C. Wehner

Agrigenetics, California (first author); Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7609 (second author)

Lists of the known genes for the Cucurbitaceae have been published previously in HortScience and the report of the Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. However, in the interest of updating and collecting the information on cucumber in one place, following is a complete list of the 105 known genes for Cucumis sativus L.

Gene symbol

 

 

Preferred

Synonym

Character

References

a

 

androecious. Produces primarily staminate flowers if recessive for F. A from MSU 713-5 and Gy 14A; a from An-11 and An-314, 2 selections from 'E-e-szan' of China.

45

ap

 

apetalous. Male sterile. Anthers become sepal-like. Ap from 'Butchers Disease Resisting'; ap from 'Butchers Disease Resisting Mutant.

29

Ar

 

Anthracnose resistance. One of several genes for resistance to Colletotrichum lagenarium. Ar from PI 175111, PI 175120, PI 179676, PI 183308, PI 183445; ar from 'Palmetto' and 'Santee'.

9

B

 

Black or brown spines. Dominant to white spines on fruit. B from 'Richard's Invincible', 'Nezhin', 'Muron', and 'Everyday'; b from 'White Spine, 'Vyaznikov', 'Berlizov', and 'Vickery'.

15, 31, 33, 36, 86, 87, 95, 103

B-2

 

Black spine-2. Interacts with B to produce F2 of 15 black : 1 white spine. B-2 from Wisc. 9362; b-2 from PI 212333 and 'Pixie'.

79

B-3

Black spines-3. Interacts with B-4 to produce F2 of 9 black:7 white spine. B-3 from LJ90430, b-3 from MSU 41.

17

B-4

 

Black spines-4. Interacts conversely of B-3. B-4 from LJ 90430; b-4 from MSU 41.

17

bi

 

bitterfree. All plant parts lacking cucurbitacins. bitterfree. Bi from a Dutch variety; bi from an 'Improved Long Green' selection.

6

bl

t

blind. Terminal bud lacking after temperature shock. Bl from 'Perseus' and inbred BDR; bl from 'Hunderup' and inbred HP3.

12

bla

 

blunt leaf. Leaves have obtuse apices and reduced lobing and serration. bla from a mutant of 'Wisc. SMR-18'.

66

Bt

 

Bitter fruit. Fruit with extreme bitter flavor. Bt from PI 173889 (Wild Hanzil Medicinal Cucumber); bt from 'Model', 'National' and 'Long Green'.

8

bu

 

bush. Shortened internodes. Bu from 'Wisc. SMR 12' and others; bu from 'KapAhk 1.

64

Bw

 

Bacterial wilt resistance. Resistance to Erwinia tracheiphila. Bw from PI 200818; bw from 'Marketer'.

56, 73

c

 

cream mature fruit color. Interaction with R is evident in the F2 ratio of 9 red (R +) : 3 orange (R c) : 3 yellow (++) : 1 cream (+ c).

33

Cca

 

Corynespora cassicola resistance. Resistance to target leaf spot; dominant to susceptibility. Cca from Royal Sluis Hybrid 72502; cca from GY 3.

3

Ccu

 

Cladosporium cucumerinum resistance. Resistance to scab.Ccu from line 127.31, a selfed progeny of 'Longfellow'; ccu from 'Davis Perfect' and other selections.

2, 4, 5, 7

cd

 

chlorophyll deficient. Seedling normal at first, then becoming light green; lethal unless grafted. Cd from normal progeny of the backcross of MSU 71305 x 'Midget' to 'Midget'; cd from a mutant selection of the same source.

11

cl

 

closed flower. Flowers do not open; male sterile.(non-fertile pollen). cl from a Korean line.

30

cla

 

Colletotrichum lagenarium resistance. Resistance to race 1 of anthracnose; recessive to susceptibility. Cla from 'Wisc. SMR 18'; cla from SC 19B.

3

Cm

 

Corynespora melonis resistance. Resistance to C. melonis; dominant to susceptibility. Cm from 'Spotvrie'; cm from 'Esvier'

89

Cmv

 

Cucumber mosaic virus resistance. One of several genes for resistance to CMV Cmv from 'Wisc. SMR 12', their resistance from 'Chinese Long' except 'Wisc. SMR 15' which also gets it from 'Tokyo Long Green'. cmv from 'National Pickling' and Wisc SR 6.

84, 93

co

 

green corolla. Green petals which turn white with age and enlarged reproductive organs; female sterile. co is from a selection of 'Extra Early Prolific'.

18, 32

cor-1

 

cordate leaves-1. Leaves are cordate, cor-1 from 'Nezhinskii'.

28

cor-2

cor

cordate leaves-2. Leaves are nearly round with revolute margins and no serration. Insect pollination is hindered by short calyx segments which tightly clasp the corolla preventing full opening. cor-2 from an induced mutant of 'Lemon'.

67

cp

 

compact. Reduced internode length, poorly developed tendrils, small flowers. Cp from 'Chipper', Gy 3, 'Poinsett', 'Tablegreen 65' and PG 57; cp from PI308916.

39

cr

 

crinkled leaf. Leaves and seed crinkled.

57

cs

 

carpel splitting. Fruits develop deep longitudinal splits. Cs from Gy 14A; cs from TAMU 1043 and TAMU 7210 which are second and fifth generation selections of MSU 3249 x SC 25.

13, 60

D

g

Dull fruit skin. Dull skin of American cultivars, dominant to glossy skin of most European cultivars. D from 'Vickery', 'Nezhin'; d from 'Everyday' and 'Galakhov'.

62, 86, 87

de

I

determinate habit. Short vine with stem terminating in flowers; modified by In-de and other genes; degree of dominance depends on gene background.De from 'Stono', 'Straight Eight', 'SMR 58', MR 17, MR 25, 'Palmetto', 'Napa', 'Highmoor', 'Burpee's Extra Early', 'Ashley', 'SMR 17', CU 54-467, CU 55-610, CU 56-388, 'Marketeer' and 'Tokyo'; de from Penn 76.60G, Minn 158.60, 'Hardin's PG 57', 'Hardin's Tree Cucumber' and S2-1 (an inbred selection from line 541).

20, 26, 33, 56

df

 

delayed flowering. Flowering delayed by long photoperiod; associated with seed dormancy. Df from 'Marketer', Wisc. 1606, Wisc. 1609 and Wisc 1548; df from 'Baroda' (PI 212896) and PI 215589 (C. hardwickii).

19, 83

di

 

diabrotica resistance. Resistance to the spotted and banded cucumber beetle. di from 'Eversweet'.

14

dl

 

delayed growth. Reduced growth rate; shortening of hypocotyl and first internodes. Dl from 'Marketer', 'Marketmore' and 'Tablegreen'; dl from 'Dwarf Marketmore' and 'Dwarf Tablegreen' both deriving dwarfness from 'Hardin's PG 57'.

49

dm

P

downy mildew resistance. One of several genes for resistance to Pseudoperonospora cubensis. Dm from Sluis & Groot Line 4285; dm from 'Poinsett'.

36, 85, 90

dvl

dl

divided leaf. True leaves are partly or fully divided, often resulting in compound leaves with 2 to 5 leaflets and having incised corollas. Dvl from 'Levo; dvl from lot 318 and 319.

55

dw

 

dwarf. Short internodes. dw from an induced mutant of 'Lemon'.

70

Es-1

 

Empty chambers-l. Carpels of fruits separated from each other, leaving a small to large cavity in the seed cell. Es-1 from 002-75; es-1 from Gy 30-75

48

Es-2

 

Empty chambers-2. Carpels of fruits separated from each other, leaving a small to large cavity in the seed cell. Es-2 from PP-2-75; es-2 from Gy-30-75.

48

F

Acr
acrF,
D, st

Female. High degree of female sex expression; interacts with a and M; strongly modified by environment and gene background. F and f are from the variety 'Japanese'.

25, 42, 43, 62, 82, 87

fa

 

fasciated. Plants have flat stems, short internodes, and rugose leaves. fa was from a selection of 'White Lemon'.

65, 81

Fba

 

Flower bud abortion. Preanthesis abortion of floral buds, ranging from 10 to 100%. Fba from MSU 713-5; fba from MSU 0612.

50

Foc

 

Fusariumoxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum resistance. Resistance to fusarium wilt; dominant to susceptibility. Foc from Wisc. 248; foc from 'Shimshon'

52

g

 

golden leaves. Golden color of lower leaves. G and g are both from different selections of 'Nezhin'.

87

gb

n

gooseberry fruit. Small, oval shaped fruit. Gb from 'Nehzin'; gb from the 'Klin mutant'.

87

gc

 

golden cotyledon. Butter colored cotyledons; seedlings die after 6 to 7 days. Gc from 'Burpless Hybrid'; gc from a mutant of 'Burpless Hybrid'.

97

gi

 

ginko. Leaves reduced and distorted, resembling leaves of Gingko; male and female sterile. Complicated background: It was in a segregating population whose immediate ancestors were offspring of crosses and BC's involving 'National', 'Chinese Long', 'Tokyo Long Green', 'Vickery', 'Early Russian', 'Ohio 31' and an unnamed white spine slicer.

37

gl

 

glabrous. Foliage lacking trichomes; fruit without spines. Gl from 'Mayak 422' and 'Odnostebelnyi'; gl from NCSU 75 and M834-6.

35, 69

glb

 

glabrate. Stem and petioles glabrous, laminae slightly pubescent. Glb from a mutant of 'Burpless Hybrid'; glb from 'Burpless Hybrid'.

100

gy

g

gynoecious. Recessive gene for high degree of female sex expression. Gy and gy are both found in different selections (S10) made from 'Borszagowski'.

47

H

 

Heavy netting of fruit. Dominant to no netting and completely linked or pleiotropic with black spines (B) and red mature fruit color (R).

33, 87

I

 

Intensifierof P. Modifies effect of P on fruit warts in Cucumis sativus var. tuberculatus.

87

In-de

In(de)

Intensifierof de. Reduces internode length and branching of de plants. In-de and in-de are from different selections (S5-1 & S5-6, respectively) from a determinant inbred S2-1 which is a selection of line 541.

26

In-F

F

intensifier of female sex expression. Increases degree of female expression of F plants. In-F from monoecious line 18-l; in-F from MSU 713-5.

44

l

 

locule number. Many fruit locules and pentamerous androecium, 5 locules recessive to the normal number of 3.

103

1h

 

long hypocotyl. As much as a 3 fold increase in hypocotyl length. Lh from MSU 713-5; lh from a 'Lemon' mutant.

72

ll

 

little leaf. Normal sized fruits on plants with miniature leaves and smaller stems. Ll from Wisc 2757; ll from 'Little John.

27, 94

ls

light sensitive. Pale and smaller cotyledons, lethal at high light intensity. Ls from 'Burpless Hybrid'; ls from a mutant of 'Burpless Hybrid'.

99

m

a, g,

andromonoecious. Plants are andromonoecious if (m +); monoecious if (++); gynoecious if (+ F); and hermaphroditic if (m F). M from 'Chicago Pickling' and 'Long Green'; m from 'Lemon'.

74, 82, 87, 91, 103

m-2

h

andromonoecious-2. Bisexual flowers with normal ovaries.

34, 47

mp

pf+, pfd, pfP

multi-pistillate. Several pistillate flowers per node, recessive to single pistillate flowers per node, recessive to single pistillate flower per node. Mp from Gy 14A and CU 551F; mp from MSU 604G and MSU 598G.

24, 51

Mp-2

 

Multi-pistillate Several pistillate flowers per node. Single dominant gene with several minor modifiers. Mp-2 from MSU 3091-1; mp-2 from Gy 3.

88

ms-1

 

male sterile-1. Male flowers abort before anthesis, partially female sterile. ms-1 from 'Black Diamond' and 'A&C'.

71, 81

ms-2

 

male sterile-2. Male sterile; pollen abortion occurs after first mitotic division of the pollen grain nucleus. Ms-2 from 'Burpless Hybrid'; ms-2 from a mutant of 'Burpless Hybrid'..

98

n

 

negative geotropic peduncle response. Pistillate flowers upright; recessive to pendent position of most cultivars.

58

ns

 

numerous spines. Few spines on the fruit is dominant to many. Ns from 'Spartan Salad', 'Wisc. 'SMR-18' and 'Gy 2 cp cp' ss from 'Wisc 2757.'

22, 23

O

y

Orange-yellow corolla. Orange-yellow dominant to light yellow. O and o are both from 'Nezhin'.

87

opp

 

opposite leaf arrangement. Opposite leaf arrangement is recessive to alternate and has incomplete penetrance. opp from 'Lemon'.

68

P

 

Prominent tubercles. Prominent on yellow rind of Cucumis sativus var. tuberculatus. Incompletely dominant to brown rind without tubercles. P from 'Klin'; p from 'Nezhin'.

87

Pc

P

Parthenocarpy. Sets fruit without pollination.Pc from 'Spotvrie'; pc from MSU 713-205.

59, 61, 96

pl

 

pale lethal. Slightly smaller pale green cotyledons; lethal after 6 to 7 days. Pl from 'Burpless Hybrid'; pl from a mutant of 'Burpless Hybrid'..

100

pm-1

 

powdery mildew resistance-1. Resistance to Sphaerotheca fuliginea. pm-1 from 'Natsufushinari'.

31, 40, 80

pm-2

 

powdery mildew resistance-2. Resistance to Sphaerotheca fuliginea. pm-2 from 'Natsufushinari'.

31, 40, 80

pm-3

 

powdery mildew resistance-3. Resistance to Sphaerotheca fuliginea. pm-3 found in PI 200815 and the PI 200818.

40, 80

pm-h

s, pm

powdery mildew resistance expressed by the hypocotyl. Resistance to powdery mildew as noted by no fungal symptoms appearing on seedling cotyledons is recessive to susceptibility. Pm-h from 'Wisc. SMR-18'; pm-h from Gy 2 cp cp', 'Spartan Salad' and 'Wisc. 2757'.

22, 80

pr

 

protruding ovary. Exerted carpels.

103

ps1

p1

pseudomonas lachrymans resistance. resistance to pseudomonas lachrymans is recessive. Psl from 'National Pickling' and 'Wisc. SMR 18'; psl from MSU 9402 and Gy 14A.

1

R

 

Red mature fruit. Interacts with c; linked or pleiotropic with B and H.

33

rc

 

revolute cotyledon. Cotyledons short, narrow, and cupped downwards; enlarged perianth.Rc from 'Burpless Hybrid'; rc from 'Burpless Hybrid' mutant.

102

ro

 

rosette; short internodes muskmelon-like leaves. Ro from 'Megurk', the result of a cross involving a mix of cucumber and muskmelon pollen.

76

s

f,a

spine size and frequency. Many small fruit spines, characteristic of European cultivars is recessive to the few large spines of most American cultivars. S from 'Vickery', 'Vyaznikov' and 'Berlizov'; s from 'Everyday', 'Nezhin' and 'Muron'.

13, 62, 86, 87

s-2

 

spine-2. Acts in duplicate recessive epistatic fashion with s-3 to produce many small spines on the fruit. S-2 from Gy 14; s-2 from TAMU 72210.

13

s-3

 

spine-3. Acts in duplicate recessive epistatic fashion with s-2 to produce many small spines on the fruit. S-3 from Gy 14; s-3 from TAMU 7220.

13

sa

 

salt tolerance. Tolerance to high salt levels is attributable to a major gene in the homozygous recessive state and may be modified by several minor genes. Sa from PI 177361; sa from PI 192940.

38

sc

cm

stunted cotyledons. Small concavely curved cotyledons; stunted plants with cupped leaves; abnormal flowers. Wisc. 9594 and Wisc. 9597 were used as heterozygous parents.

77, 78

Sd

 

Sulfur dioxide resistance. Less than 20% leaf damage in growth chamber. Sd from 'National Pickling'; sd from 'Chipper'.

10

sp

 

short petiole. Leaf petioles of first nodes 20% the length of normal. sp from the Russian mutant line 1753.

53

ss

 

small spines. Large, coarse fruit spines is dominant to small, fine fruit spines. Ss from 'Spartan Salad', 'Wisc. SMR-18' and 'Gy 2 cp cp; ss from 'Wisc 2757.

22, 23

T

 

Tall plant. Tall height incompletely dominant to short height.

33

td

 

tendrilless. Tendrils lacking; associated with misshaped ovaries and brittle leaves. Td from 'Model' and Sc 8M ('Pixie'); td from a mutant of 'Southern Pickler'.

75

te

 

tender skin of fruit. Thin, tender skin of European cultivars; recessive to the thick, tough skin of most American cultivars. Te from 'Vickery'; te from 'Everyday'.

62, 86

Tr

 

Trimonoecious. Producing male, bisexual, and female flowers in this sequence during plant development. Tr from Tr-12, a selection of a Japanese variety belonging to the Fushinari group; tr fromH-7-25, MOA-309, MOA-3-3 and AH-311-3.

46

Tu

 

Tuberculate fruit. Warty fruit, characteristic of American cultivars is dominant to the smooth, nonwarty fruits of most European cultivars. Tu from 'White Spine' and 'Vickery'; tu from 'Richard's Invincible' and 'Everyday'.

86, 95

u

M

uniform immature fruit color. Uniform color of European cultivars such as 'Everyday' recessive to the mottled or stippled color of most American cultivars. U from 'Vickery'; u from 'Everyday'.

5, 59

ul

 

umbrella leaf.Leaf margins turn down at low relative humidity making leaves look cupped. Source of ul unknown.

54

v

 

virescent. Yellow leaves becoming green.

62, 87

vvi

 

variegated virescent. Yellow cotyledons, becoming green; variegated leaves.

2

w

 

white immature fruit color. White is recessive to green .W from 'Vaughn', 'Clark's Special', 'Florida Pickle' and 'National Pickling'; w from 'Bangalore'.

15

wf

w

white flesh. Intense white flesh color; recessive to dingy white; acts with yf to produce F2 of 12 white: (++ and + wf): 3 yellow (yf +): 1 orange (yf wf). Wf from EG and G6, each being dingy white (++); wf from NPI which is orange (yf wf).

29

Wmv

 

Watermelon mosaic virus resistance. Resistance to strain 2 of watermelon mosaic virus. Wmv from 'Kyoto 3 Feet'; wmv from 'Bet-Alfa'.

16

wmv 1-1

 

watermelon mosaic virus-1 resistance. Resistance to strain 1 of watermelon mosaic virus by limited systemic translocation; lower leaves may show severe symptoms. Wmv-1-1 from Wisc. 2757; wmv-1-1 from 'Surinam'.

92

yc-1

 

yellow cotyledons-1. Cotyledons yellow at first, later turning green. Yc-1 from Ohio M.R. No. 25; yc-1 from a mutant of Ohio M.R. No. 25.

1

yc-2

 

yellow cotyledons-2. Virescent cotyledons. Yc-2 from 'Burpless Hybrid'; yc-2 from a mutant of 'Burpless Hybrid'.

101. 102

yf

v

yellow flesh. Interacts with yf to produce F2 of 12 white (++ and + wf) : 3 yellow (yf +) : 1 orange (yf wf). Yf from 'Natsufushinari' which has an intense white flesh (Yf wf); yf from PI 200815 which has a yellow flesh (yf Wf).

41

yg

gr

yellow-green immature fruit color. Recessive to dark green and epistatic to light green.

103

yp

 

yellow plant. Light yellow green foliage; slow growth.

2

zymv

 

zucchini yellows mosaic virus. Inheritance is incomplete. Believed to be inherited in a recessive fashion with the source of resistance being 'TMG-1'.

63

Literature Cited

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