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Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 14:129-137 (article 44) 1991

Gene List for Watermelon

Warren R. Henderson

Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7609

A list of the genes of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai) was initially published in 1976 (30); lists of supplementary genes were published in 1979 (3) and 1982 (4). In 1985, CGC initiated thepolicy of printing a complete list of genes for the major cucurbit species on an alternating basis; each list would be updated every four years. A complete listing of watermelon genes was published in 1987 (5), and this list provides an update of the known genes in watermelon.

It is hoped that scientists will consult the following list as well as the rules of gene nomenclature for the Cucurbitaceae (see page 140) before chosing a gene name and symbol.

Gene symbol
   
Preferred
Synonym
Character
Reference
a
-
andromonoecious. Recessive to monoecious. 24, 25, 32
Aco-1
-
Aconitase-1 19
Aco-2
-
Aconitase-2 19
Adh-11
-
Alcohol dehydrogenase-11 One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. 20, 21, 42.
Adh-12
-
Alcohol dehydrogenase-12 One of three codominane alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus var. citroides and C. colocynthis. 20. 21. 42
Adh-13
-
Alcohol dehydrogenase-13 . One of three codomonant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus and C. lanatus var. vitroides. (Additional alleles reported in Praecitrullus fistulosus and Acanthosicyos naudinianus.). 20, 21, 42
Af
-
Aulacophora faveicollis resistance. Resistance to the red pumpkin beetle. Dominant to susceptibiility. 36
Aps-1
Acph-A
Acid phosphatase-1 19, 20, 21, 42
 Ar-1
B, Gc
Anthracnose resistance to races 1 of Glomerella cingulata var. orbiculare
 7, 12 ,41
 Ar-2
 -
Anthracnose resistance to race 2 of Colletotrichum lagenarium; derived from PI 299379 and PI 189225
 14, 33, 34, 41
 C
 -
Canary yellow flesh; dominant to pink
24
 d
 -
dotted seed coat; black dotted seeds when dominant for color genes r, t, and w.
10, 24, 26
 db 
 -
Rresistance to gummy stem blight caused by Didymella bryoniae; from PI 189225; Recessive to susceptibility.
23
 dg
 -
delayed green. Cotyledons and young leaves are initially pale green but later develop chlorophyll. Hypostatic to I-dg.
 29
Dia-1
-
Diaphorase-1 19
 dw-1
 -
dwarf-1; short internodes, due to fewer and shorter cells than normal forms; allelic to dw-1s
13, 17
 dw-1s
 -
short vine; allelic to dw-1; vine length intermediate between normal and dwarf; hypocotyl somewhat longer than normal vine and considerably longer than dwarf; dw-1-s recessive to normal; dw-1s recessive to normal.
6
 dw-2
 -
dwarf-2; short internodes, due to fewer cells.
13, 18
 e
 t
explosive rind; thin, tender rind, bursting when cut..
24, 27
 Est-11
 -
Esterase-11 . One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band.
19, 20, 21
Est-12
-
Esterase-12. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus var. citroides and C. colocynthis. (Additional alleles reported in C. colocynthis, C. ecirrhosus, Praecitrullus fistulosus and Acanthosicyos naudinianus. 19, 20, 21
Est-2
-
Esterase-2. (Additional alleles reportedin C. colocynthis, Praecitrullus fistulosus and Acanthosicyos naudinianus.) 19, 20, 21
 f
 -
 furrowed fruit surface; recessive to smooth; type inbreds not given; f like 'Stone Mountain' or 'Black Diamond'; F like 'Mickylee'.
24
Fdp-1
-
Fructose 1,6 diphosphatase-1 19, 20
 Fo-1
 -
Dominant gene for resistance to race 1 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.
9, 22
For-1
-
Ferrodoxin oxidoreductase-1 19
 Fwr
 -
Fruit fly resistance in watermelon. Dominant to susceptibility to Dacus cucurbitae
11
 g
 

D

light green skin. Llight green fruit recessive to dark green.
24, 27, 40
 gs
 ds
striped green skin. R ecessive to dark green but dominant to light green skin.
24, 40
 Gdh-1
 -
Glutamate dehydrogenase-1. Isozyme located in cytosol.
20
Gdh-2
-
Glutamate dehydrogenase-2. Isozyme located in plastids. 19, 20
 gms
 msg
glabrous male sterile; foliage lacking trichomes; male sterile caused by chromosome desynapsis.
28, 38, 39
 go
 c
golden. Yellow color of older leaves and mature fruit.
1
Got-11
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-11 . One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. 19, 20, 21, 42
Got-12
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-12 . One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. Lanatus var. Citroides (Additional alleles reported in C. colocynthis, Praecitrullus fistulosus, and Acanthosicyos naudinianus.) 19, 20, 21,42
Got-2
-
Glutamate osaloacetate transaminase-2. (Additional alleles reported in C. colocynthis, C. ecirrhosus, Praecitrullus fistulosus, and Acanthosicyos naudinianus.) 19, 20, 21, 42
Got-3
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-3 42
Got-4
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-4 19, 42
 i-dg
 -
Inhibitor of delayed green.; Epistatic to dg; I-dg I-dg dgdg plants are pale green; and i-dg i-dg dgdg plants are normal.
29
Idh-1
-
Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 . 42
 l
 -
long (or large) seed. Long recessive to medium length of seed; interacts with s.
26
Lap-1
-
Leucine aminopeptidase-1. 19, 20
 m
 -
mottled skin. Greenish white mottling of fruit skin.
24, 40
Mdh-1
-
Malic dehydrogenase-1. (A second allele reportedin Praecitrullus fistulosus). 21,42
Mdh-2
-
Malix dehydrogenase-2. (Additional alleles reported in C. colocynthis and Praecitr8llus fistulosus.). 21
Me-1
-
Malic enzyme-1. (Additional alleles reported in C. colocynthis and Praecitrullus fistulosus.). 19, 20, 21, 42
Me-2
-
Malic enzyme-1. (Additional alleles reported in C. colocynthis and Praecitrullus fistulosus). 42
 nl
 -
nonlobed leaves; leaves lack lobing.dominance incomplete.
16
 O
 
Elongate fruit; incompletely dominant to spherical..
25, 40
 p
 -
pencilled lines on skin. Inconspicuous; recessive to netted fruit.
24, 40
Pgd-1
6 Pgdh-1
6-Phosphogluconate dehudrogenase-1. (Additional alleles reported in Praecitrullus fistulosus and Acanthosicyos naudinianus. 19, 20, 21, 42
Pgd-1
6 Pgdh-1
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase-1. (Additional alleles reported in Praecitrullus fistulosus and Acanthosicyos naudinianus). 19, 20, 21, 42
Pgd-2

6-Pgdh-2

6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase-2. 21, 42
Pgi-1
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-1. (Additional alleles reported in C. colocynthis and Acanthosicyos naudinianus.) 19, 20, 21
Pgi-21
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-21. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. 19, 20, 21, 42
Pgi-22
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-22. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. lanatus and C. colocynthis. 19, 20, 21, 42
Pgi-23
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-23. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. lanatus var. cidtoides. (Additional alleles reported in Praecitrullus fistulosus. 19, 20, 21, 42
Pgm-1
-
Phosphoglucomutase-1. (Additional alleles reported in C. colocynthis, Praecitrullus fistulosus and Acanhosicyos naudinianus.) 19, 20, 21, 42
Pgm-21
-
Phosphoglucomutase-21. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. 21, 42
Pgm-22
-
Phosphoglucomutase-22. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Additional alleles reported in Praecitrullus fistulosus and Acanthosicyos naudiniaus). 21, 42
 pm
 -
powdery mildew susceptibility. Susceptibility to Sphaerotheca fuliginea. 31
Prx-11
-
Perozidase-11. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. 19, 20, 21
Prx-12
-
Peroxidase-12. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. (Additional alleles reported in C. colocynthis, C. Ecirrhosus, Praecitrullus fistulosus and Acanthosicyos naudinianus.) 19, 20, 21
Prx-2
-
Peroxidase-2 19
Prx-3
-
Peroxidase-3 19
 r
red seed coat. Interacts with w and t. 26
 s
-
short seeds. Epistatic to l 26
Skdh-1
-
Shikmimic acid dehydrogenase-1 42
Skdh-2
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-2 (Additional alleles reported in C. colocynthis, C. ecirrhosus, Praecitrullus fistulosus and Acanthosicyos naudinianus 19, 20, 21
Sod-1
-
Superoxide dismutase-1. (Additional alleles reported in C. colocynthis and Acanthosicyos naudinianus). 19, 20, 21, 42
Sod-2
-
Superoxide dismutase-2. (A second allele reported in in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.) 21
Sod-3
-
Superoxide dismutase-2. (A second allele reported in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.) 21
 Sp
 -
Spotted cotyledons, leaves and fruit. 29
Spr-1
-
Seed Protein-1 20
Spr-2
-
Seed protein-2 20
Spr-3
-
Seed protein-3 20
Spr-4
Sp-4
Seed pritein-4 19, 20
Spr-5
Sp-5
Seed protein-5 19, 20
 su
 Bi, suBi
suppressor of bitterness. Non-bitter fruit. Bitterness in C. colocynthis is due to Su Su genotype. 2, 19
 t
 bt
tan seed coat. Interacts with r & w. 26
 Tpi-1
 -
Triosephosphatase isomerase-1. (Additional alleles reported in C. colocynthis, Praecitrullus fistulosus and Acanthosicyos naudinianus.) 19, 20, 21
Tpi-2
-
Triosephophatase isomerase-2. (Additional alleles reported in Acanthosicyos naudinianus and Praecitrullus fistulosus). 21
Ure-1
Urease-1
  21
 w
-
white seed coat. Interacts with r and t 26
 Wf
 W
White flesh. Wf is epistatic to a second gene (y) which conditions yellow and red flesh. Wf_y y and Wf_Y are white fleshed; wf wf Y_ is red fleshed; wf wf y y is red fleshed. 33
 y
r,  rd, red
yellow flesh ('Golden Honey' type). Recessive to red flesh and hypostatic to orange flesh (yo). Red flesh (Y_) is epistatic to orange flesh. 8, 24, 27
 yo
-
orange flesh from 'Tendersweet Orange Flesh'. Orange flesh (yo yo) epistatic to yellow flesh (y y) from 'Golden Honey' and hypostatic to red flesh (Y_). 8
 Yl
-
Yellow leaf; (from 'Yellow Skin'). Incompletely dominant to green leaf. 37

References

  1. Barham, W.S. 1956. A study of the Royal Golden watermelon with emphasis on the inheritance of the chloroticcondition characteristic of this variety. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 67:487-489.
  2. Chambliss, O.L., H.T. Erickson and C.M. Jones. 1968. Genetic control of bitterness in watermelon fruits. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 93:539-546.
  3. Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative, Cucurbit Gene List Committee, 1979. New genes for the Cucurbitaceae. cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 2:49-53.
  4. Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative, Cucurbit Gene List Committee. 1982. Update of cucurbit gene list and nomenclature rules. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 5:62-66.
  5. Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative, Cucurbit Gene List Committee. 1987. Gene list for watermelon. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 10:106-110.
  6. Dyutin, K.E. and E.A. Afanas'eva. 1987. "Inheritance of the short vine trait in watermelon." Cytology & Genetics (Tsitologiya i Genetika) 21:71-73.
  7. Hall, C.V., S.. Dutta, H.R. Kalia and C.T. Rogerson. 1960. Inheritance of resistance to the fungus Colletotrichum lagenatium (Pass.) Ell. and Halst. in watermelons. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 75:638-643.
  8. Henderson, W.R. 1989. Inheritance of orange flesh color in watermelon. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 12:59-63.
  9. Henderson, W.R., S.F. Jenkins, Jr. and J.O. Rawlins. 1970. The inheritance of Fusarium wilt resistance in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 95-276-282.
  10. Kanda, T. 1951. The inheritance of seed-coat colouring in the watermelon. Jap. J. Genet. 7:30-48.
  11. Khandelwal, R.C. and P. Nath. 1978. Inheritance of resistance to fruit fly in watermelon. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 20:31-34.
  12. Layton, D.V. 1937. The parasitism of Colletotrichum lagenarium (Pass.) Ells. and Halst. Iowa Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Bul. 223.
  13. Liu, P.B.W. and J.B. Loy. 1972. Inheritance and morphology of two dwarf mutants in watermelon. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 97:745-748.
  14. Love, S.L. and B.B. rhodes. 1988. Single gene control of anthracnose resistance in Citrullus? Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 11:64-67.
  15. McKay, J.W. 1936. Factor interaction in Citrullus.. J. Hered. 27:110-112.
  16. Mohr, H.C. A mutant leaf form in watermelon. Proc. Assn. Southern Agr. Workers 50:129-130.
  17. Mohr, H.C. 1956. Modeof inheritance of the bushy growth characteristics in watermelon. Proc. Assn. Southern Agr. Workers 53:174.
  18. Mohr, H.C. and M.S. Sandhu. 1975. Inheritance and morphological traits of a double recessive dwarf in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf. J. Amer. Soc. HOrt. Sci. 100: 135-137.
  19. Navot, N.M. Sarfatti and D. Zamir. 1990. Linkage relationships of genes affecting bitteness and flesh color in watermelon. J. Hered. 81:162-165.
  20. Navot, N. and D. Zamir. 1986. Linkage relationships of 19 protein coding genes in watermelon. Theor. Appl. genet./ 72:274-278.
  21. Navot, N. and Daniel Zamir. 1987. Isozyme and seed protein phylogeny of the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Plant Syst. & Evol. 156: 61-67.
  22. Netzer, D. and C. Weintall. 1980. Inheritance of resistance to race 1 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Plant Dis. 64: 863-854.
  23. Norton, J.D. 1979. Inheritance of resistance to gummy stem blight in watermelon. HortScience 14: 630-632.
  24. Poole, C.F. 1944. Genetics of cultivated cucurbits. J. Hered. 35: 122-128.
  25. Poole, C.F. and P.C. Grimball. 1945. Interaction of sex, shape, and weight genes in watermelon. J. Agr. Res. 71: 533-552.
  26. Poole, C.F. P.C. Grimball and D.R. Porter. 1941. Inheritance of seed characters in watermelon. J. Agr. Res. 63: 433-456.
  27. Porter, D.R. 1937. Inheritance of certain fruit and seed characters in watermelons. Hilgardia 10: 489-509.
  28. Ray, D.T. and J.D. Sherman. 1988. Desynaptic chromosome behavior of the gms mutant in watermelon. J. Hered. 79: 397-399.
  29. Rhodes, B.B. 1986. Genes affecting foliage color in watermelon. J. Hered. 77: 134-135.
  30. Robinson, R.W., H.M. Munger, T.W. Whitaker and G.W. Bohn. 1976. Genes of the Cucurbitaceae. HortScience 11: 554-568.
  31. Robinson, R.W., R. Provvidenti and J.W. Shail. 1975. Inheritance of susceptibility to powdery mildew in the watermelon. J. Hered. 66: 310-311.
  32. Rosa, J.T. 1928. The inheritance of flower types in Cucumis and Citrullus. Hilgardia 3: 233-250.
  33. Shimotsuma, M. 1963. Cytogenetical studies in the genus Citrullus. VII. Inheritance of several characters in watermelons. Jap. J. Breeding 13: 235-240.
  34. Sowell, G., Jr., B.B. Rhodes and J.D. Norton. 1980. New sources of resistance to watermelon anthracnose. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 105: 197-199.
  35. Suvanprakorn, K. and J.D. Norton. 1980. Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose race 2 in watermelon. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 105: 862-865.
  36. Vashishta, R.N. and B. Choudhury. 1972. Inheritance of resistance to red pumpkin beetle in muskmelon, bottle gourd and watermelon. Proc. 3rd Intern. Symposium Sub-Trop. Hort. 1:75-81.
  37. Warid, A. and A.A. Abd-El-Hafez. 1976. Inheritance of marker genes of leaf color and ovary shape in watermelon, Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. The Libyan J. Sci. 6A: 1-8.
  38. Watts, V.M. 1962. A marked male-sterile mutant in watermelon. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 81: 498-505.
  39. Watts, V.M. 1967. Development of disease resistance and seed production in watermelon stocks carrying the msg gene. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 91: 579-583.
  40. Weetman, L.M. 1937. Inheritance and correlation of shape, size, and color in the watermelon, Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. Iowa Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. Bul. 228: 222-256.
  41. Winstead, N.N., M.J. Goode and W.S. Barham. 1959. Resistance in watermelon to Colletotrichum lagenarium races 1, 2, and 3. Plant Dis. Rptr. 43: 570-577.
  42. Zamir, D., N. Navot and J. Rudich. 1984. Enzyme polymorphism in Citrullus lanatus and C. colocynthis in Israel and Sinai. Plant Syst. & Evol. 146: 163-170.

CGC Gene List Committee:

Cucumber:

T.C.Wehner

Muskmelon: M. PItrat
Watermelon: W.R. Henderson
Cucurbita spp.: R.W. Robinson
Other Genera: R.W. Robinson
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Page citation: Wehner, T.C., Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative;
Created by T.C. Wehner and T. Ng, 1 June 2005; design by C.T. Glenn;
send questions to T.C. Wehner; last revised on 14 December, 2009