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Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 18:69-84 (article 33) 1995

Gene List for Watermelon

Bill Rhodes and Xingping Zhang

Horticulture Department, E 142 Poole Agriculture Center, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0375

Lists of the genes of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai) have been published previously in HortScience, 1976 (35), and in the Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Reports in 1979 (3), 1982 (4), 1985 (5), 1991 (6) and 1992 (7). The current list provides an update of the known genes in watermelon.

The first report on dg (Rhodes, 34) concluded that another nonallelic gene was interacting with dg. However, we (Zhang et al., submitted for publication) now observe in advanced material, only a single recessive gene with no evidence of epistasis. Other reports on this gene are encouraged. Perhaps a better name for this gene is virescent. Another revision is necessary for the gene originally designated b l, and a full description of this pleiotropic gene is being prepared.

Scientists should consult the following list as well as the rules of gene nomenclature for the Cucurbitaceae (see appendix) before choosing a gene name and symbol.

+
Gene symbol
 
Preferred
Synonym
Character
Reference

a

-

andromonoecious. Recessive to monoecious.

28, 29, 37

Aco-1
-
Aconitase-1
23
Aco-2
-
Aconitase-2
23
Adh1+
-
Alcohol dehygenase-1+. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band.
24, 25, 27
Adh-11
-
Alcohol dehydrogenase-11. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus var. citroides and C. colocynthis.
Adh-12
-
Alcohol dehydrogenase-12 . One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides.
24, 25, 27
Adh-13
-
Alcohol dehydrogenase-13. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
24, 25, 47
Ar-21
-
Anthracnose resistance to race 2 of Colletotrichum lagenarium derived from PI 299379 and PI 189225. Resistance in Citrullus colocynthis is due to other dominant factors.
17. 18. 39, 40, 46
b l
-
branch less. Only half as many branches, originating at the first five nodes.
15
C
-
Canary yellow flesh. Dominant to pink.
28
d
-
dotted seed coat. Black dotted seeds when dominant for r, t, and w.
12, 29, 30
db
-
Resistance to gummy stem blight caused by Didymella bryoniae from PI 189225. Recessive to susceptibility.
27
dg
-
delayed green. Cotyledons and young leaves are initially pale green but later develop chlorophyll. First reported to be hypostatic to l-dg. More recent evidence (submitted for publication) indicate simple recessiveness.
34
Dia-1
-
Diaphorase-1
24
dw-1
-
dwarf-1. Short internodes, due to fewer, shorter cells than normal. Allelic to dw-1s.
16, 21, 22
dw-1S
-

short vine. Allelic to dw-1. Vine length intermediate between normal and dwarf. Hypocotyl somewhat longer than normal vine and considerably longer than dwarf.

dw-1S recessive to normal.

8
dw-2
-
dwarf-2. Short internodes, due to fewer cells.
16, 21, 22
e
t
explosive rind. Thin, tender rind, bursting when cut.
28, 31
Est-1+
-
Esterase-1+. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25
Est-11
-
Esterase-11. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus var. citroides and C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25
Est-12
-
Esterase-12. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25
Est-13
-
Esterase-13 One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
23, 24, 25
Est-14
-
Esterase-14.One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. ecirrhosus.
23, 24, 25
Est-15
-
Esterase-15. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
23, 24, 25
Est-2+
-
Esterase-2+. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25
Est-21
-
Esterase-21. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25
Est-22
-
Esterase-22. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25
Est-23
-
Esterase-23. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
23, 24, 25
Est-24
-
Esterase-24. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus,
23, 24, 25
f
-
furrowed fruit surface. Recessive to smooth.
28
Fdp-1
-
Fructose 1.6 diphosphatase-1.
24, 25
Fo-1
-
Dominant gene for resistance to race 1 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.
11, 26
For-1
-
Fructose 1,6 diphosphatase-1
23
Fwr
-
Fruit fly resistance in watermelon. Dominant to susceptibility to Dacus cucurbitae.
13
g
d
light green skin. Light green fruit recessive to dark green (D) and striped green (ds)
28, 31, 45
gs
ds
striped green skin. Recessive to dark green but dominant to light green skin.
28, 45
Gdh-1
-
Glutamate dehydrogenase-1. Isozyme located in cytosol.
24
Gdh-2
-
Glutamate dehydrogenase-2. Isozyme located in plastids.
23, 24
gms
msg
glabrous male sterile. Foliage lacking trichomes; male sterile - caused by chromosome desynapsis.
33, 43, 44
go
c
golden. Yellow color of older leaves and mature fruit.
1
Got-1+
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-1+. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Got-11
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-11. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis and Praecitrullus fistulosus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Got-12
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-12. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus var. citroides.
23, 24, 25, 47
Got-13
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-13. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Got-2+
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-2+. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Got-21
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-21 . One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25, 47
Got-22
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-22. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. ecirrhosus.

23, 24, 25, 47

Got-23
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminse-23 . One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Got-24
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-24. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Got-3
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-3.
47
Got-4
-
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase-4.
23, 47
l-dg
-
Inhibitor of delayed green. Epistatic to dg: dg dg 1-dg I-dg and dg I-dg i-dg plants are pale green; and dg dg i-dg i-dg plants are normal. This gene was not present in more advanced germplasm.
34
ldh-1
-
Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1.
47
l
-
long seed. Long recessive to medium length of seed; interacts with s.
30
Lap-1
-
Leucine aminopeptidase-1.
23, 24
m
-
mottled skin. Greenish white mottling of fruit skin.
28, 45
ms
-
male sterile.
48, 49
Mdh-1+
-
Malic dehydrogenase-1+. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
25, 47
Mdh-11
-
Malic dehydrogenase-11 . One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
25, 47
Mdh-2+
-
Malic dehydrogenase-2+ . One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
5
Mdh-21
-
Malic dehydrogenase-21. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.
25
Mdh-22
-
Malic dehydrogenase-22. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
25
Me-1+
-
Malic enzyme-1+ . One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Me-11
-
Malic enzyme-11. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Me-12
-
Malic enzyme-12 . One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25, 47
Me-2
-
Malic enzyme-2
47
nl
-
nonlobed leaves. Leaves lack lobing; dominance incomplete.
20
O
-
Elongate fruit. Incompletely dominant to spherical.
28, 45
P
-
pencilled lines on skin. Inconspicuous; recessive to netted fruit.
28, 45
Pgd-1+
6 Pgdh-1+
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase-1+. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgd-11
6 Pgdh-1+
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase-11. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgd-12
6 Pgdh-12
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase-12 . One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgd-2+
6 Pgdh-2+
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase-2+ . One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. lanatus.
25, 47
Pgd-21
6 Pgdh-21
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase-21. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. ecirrhosus.
25, 47
Pgd-22
6 Pgdh-22
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase-22 . One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
25, 47
Pgd-23
6 Pgdh-23
6 Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase-23. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. colocynthis.
25, 47
Pgd-24
6 Pgdh-24
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase-24. One of five codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
25, 47
Pgd-1+
-
Phosphoglucosisomerase-1+. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25
Pgi-11
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-11. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25
Pgi-12
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-12. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
23, 24, 25
Pgi-2+
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-2+.One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgi-21
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-21. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. lanatus and C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgi-22
-
Phosphoglucoisomeras-22. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. ecirrhosus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgi-23
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-23. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgi-24
-
Phosphoglucosoimerase-24 . One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. lanatus var. citroides.
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgi-25
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-25. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgm-1+
-
Phosphoglucomutase-11. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgm-11
-
Phoephoglucomutase-11. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25 47
Pgm-12
-
Phosphoglucomutase-12. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgm-13
-
Phosphoglucomutase-13. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgm-2+
-
Phosphoglucomutase-2+. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. lanatus.
25, 47
Pgm-21
-
Phosphoglucomutase-21. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
25, 47
Pgm-22
-
Phosphoglucomutase-22. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. lanatus.
25, 47
Pgm-23
-
Phosphoglucomutase-23. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
25, 47
pm
-
powdery mildew susceptibility. Susceptibility to Sphaerotheca fuliginea.
36
Prx-1+
-
Peroxidase-1+. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25
Prx-11
-
Peroidase-11. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25
Prx-12
-
Peroxidase-12. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
23, 24, 25
Prx-13
-
Peroxidase-13. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25
Prx-14
-
Prx-14. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. ecirrhosus.
23, 24, 25
Prx-15
-
Peroxidase-15. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus and C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25
Prx-16
-
Prx-16. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
23, 24, 25
Prx-2
-
Peroxidase-2
23
Prx-3
-
Peroxidase-3
23
r
-
red seed coat. Interacts with w and t.
30
s
-
short seeds. Epistatic to l.
30
Skdh-1
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-1
47
Skdh-2+
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-2+ . One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25
Skdh-21
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-21. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25
Skdh-22
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-22. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25
Skdh-23
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-23. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
23, 24, 25
Skdh-24
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-24. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. ecirrhosus.
23, 24, 25
Skdh-45
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-25. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
23, 24, 25
slv
-
Seedling leaf variegation. Conferred by a single recessive gene. Dominant allele at same locus in PI 482261.
32
Sod-1+
-
Superoxide dismutase-1+ . One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Sod-11
-
Superoxide dismutase-11. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25, 47
Sod-12
-
Superoxide dismutase-12. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
23, 24, 25, 47
Sod-2+
-
Superoxidedismutase-2+. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
25
Sod-21
-
Superoxide dismutase-21. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
25
Sod-3+
-
Superoxide dismutase-3+. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
25
Sod-31
-
Superoxide dismutase-31 . One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
25
Sp
-
Spotted cotyledons, leaves and fruit.
34
Spr-1
-
Seed protein-1
24
Spr-2
-
Seed protein-2
24
Spr-3
-
Seed protein-3
24
Spr-4
Sp-4
Seed protein-4
23, 24
Spr-5
Sp-5
Seed protein-5
23, 24
su
Bi, suBi
suppressor of bitterness. Non-bitter fruit. Bitterness in C. colocynthis is due to Su su genotype.
2, 23
t
bt
tan seed coat. Interacts with r and w.
19, 30
Tpi-1+
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-1+ . One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
23, 24, 25
Tpi-11
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-11. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.
23, 24, 25
Tpi-12
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-12. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
23, 24, 25
Tpi-13
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-13 . One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
23, 24, 25
Tpi-2+
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-2+ . One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.
25
Tpi-21
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-21 . One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.
25
Tipi-22
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-22 . One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.
25
Ure-1
-
Urease-1
25
w
-
white seed coat. Interacts with r and t.
30
Wf
W
White flesh. Wf is epistatic to the second gene b (or C?) which conditions yellow (Canary yellow?) and red flesh. Wf_B_ and Wf_bbI are white fleshed, wf wf B_ is yellow fleshed, and wf wf b b is red fleshed.
38
y
r
yellow flesh ('Golden Honey' type). Recessive to Y (red flesh) .
10, 28, 31
yo
-
orange flesh ('Tendersweet Orange Flesh'). Allelic to y. Y (red flesh) is dominant to yo (orange flesh) and y (yellow flesh) . yo(orange flesh) is dominant to y (yellow flesh).
10
Yl
-
Yellow leaf (from 'Yellow Skin'). Incompletely dominant to green leaf.
42

Literature Cited

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  36. Robinson, R.W., R. Provvidenti and J.W. Shail. 1975. Inheritance of susceptibility to powdery mildew in the watermelon. J. Hered. 66:310-311.
  37. Rosa, J.T. 1928. The inheritance of flower types in Cucumis and Citrullus. Hilgardia 3:233-250.
  38. Shimotsuma, M. 1963. Cytogenetical studies in the genus Citrullus. VII. Inheritance of several characters in watermelons. Jap. J. Breeding 13:235-240.
  39. Sowell, G., Jr. B.B. Rhodes and J.D. Norton. 1980. New sources of resistance to watermelon anthracnose. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 105-197-199.
  40. Suvanprakorn, K. and J.D. Norton. 1980. Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose race 2 in watermelon. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 105:862-865.
  41. Vashishta, R.N. and B. Choudhury. 1972. Inheritance of resistance to red pumpkin beetle in muskmelon, bottle gourd and watermelon. Proc. 3rd Intern. Symposium Sub-Trop. Hort. 1:75-81.
  42. Warid A. and A.A. Abd-El-Hafez. 1976. Inheritance of marker genes of leaf color and ovary shape in watermelon. Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. The Libyan J. Sci. 6A:1-8.
  43. Watts, V.M. 1962. A marked male-sterile mutant in watermelon. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 81-498-505.
  44. Watts, V.M. 1967. Development of disease resistance and seed production in watermelon stocks carrying the msg gene. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 91-579-583.
  45. Weetman, L.M. 1937. Inheritance and correlation of shape, size, and color in the watermelon. Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. Iowa Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. Bul. 228:222-256.
  46. Winstead, N.N., M.J. Goode and W.S. Barham. 1959. Resistance in watermelon to Colletotrichum lagenarium races 1, 2, and 3. Plant Dis. Rptr. 43:570-577.
  47. Zamir, Daniel, Nir Navot and Jehoshua Rudich. 1984. Enzyme polymorphism in Citrullus lanatus and C. colocynthis in Israel and Sinai. Plant Syst, & Evol. 146:163-170.
  48. Zhang, X.P. and M. Wang. 1990. A genetic male-sterile (ms) watermelon from China. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 13:45.
  49. Zhang, X.P., H.T. Skrupska and B.B. Rhodes. 1994. Cytological expression in the male-sterile ms mutant in watermelon. J. Heredity 85:279-285.

CGC Gene List Committee:

Cucumber: T.C. Wehner
Muskmelon: M. Pitrat
Watermelon: B.B. Rhodes
Cucurbita spp. : R.W. Robinson
M.G. Hutton
Other genera: R.W. Robinson
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Page citation: Wehner, T.C., Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative;
Created by T.C. Wehner and T. Ng, 1 June 2005; design by C.T. Glenn;
send questions to T.C. Wehner; last revised on 1 August, 2007