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Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 19:36-37 (article 14) 1996

Efficiency of Haploid Production in Cucumber

G. Caglar, K. Abak

Horticultural REsearch Institute, Erdemli, Icel, Turkey, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cukurova, Adana, Turkey

Introduction. A method of double haploid production induced by irradiated pollen, used routinely in melon breeding programs is promising for use in cucumber (3,4,5,6) . Since 1992 we have recovered haploid plants from several cucumber genotypes using an adaptation of this method. Initially, we determined the optimal irradiation dose and pollination season for cucumber. The success of this method, however, can be criticized because the criteria regarding the success in these studies seemed insufficient. Therefore, we designed a study which utilized the "Haploid Production Efficiency" (HPE 1) concept which takes into account "the number of haploid plants regenerated per fruit" as well s its components.

Materials & Methods. Eight F1 hybrid cultivars and 2 inbred lines were used in 1995. Young, rapid developing and healthy plants were used for pollinations. Female flowers of the plants were polllinated on the 23rd and the 238th of June with 300 Gy gamma irradiated pollen (2). the following variables were recorded: S/F (the number of seeds/fruit) E/S (the number of embryos/fruit), P/E (the number of haploid plants regeneratd.100 seeds) and HPE (the number of haploid plants regenerated/fruit).

Results & Discussion. The number of fruits, seeds, embryos, haploid plants and HPE with its components are presented in Table 1. Variability was observed among genotypes for fruit number. This variation might be the result of pollination and/or genotype differences.

The mean S.F was low (115.2). This was due to parthenocarpy recorded in the gynoecious F1 hybrids when grown in a greenhouse. The mean E/S was 2.9, and was as high as 5.36 in 'Passandra'. Generally, E.Ss in most cultivars were considered to be relatively high when compared with the previous studies (4,6). The mean E./F was low (3.30). This was due to high number of soft embryos. Accordingly, P/Ss of the cultivars were adversely affected (with a mean of 0.9). The mean HPE was 1.1 and as high as 1.7 in some cultivars. Those data indicate the utility and efficiency of the method used.

High values of S/F and E.S are desirable. Normally, high P/S and HPE values are expected when E/S and/or E/F values are high. However, this may not always be the case since those two components are also affected by P/E which, in turn, is closely related to quality of embryos. Therefore, S.F, E/S and P/E should be high in order to reach a sufficient HPE.

Cultivars
No. of fruits
No. of seeds
No. of embryos
No. of plants
S/F
E/S
E/F
P/S
P/E
HPE
Efes
9
1238
31
11
137.6
2.50
3.44
0.89
35.5
1.2
Ceren
9
652
29
4
72.4
4.45
3.22
0.67
13.8
0.4
Passandra
7
616
33
5
88.0
5.36
4.71
0.81
15.2
0.7
Nile
7
787
13
5
112.4
1.65
1.86
0.64
38.5
0.7
Ece
7
717
20
7
102.4
2.79
2.86
0.98
35.0
1.0
Alara
6
626
24
10
104.3
3.83
4.00
1.60
41.7
1.7
1404
6
846
21
10
141.0
2.48
3.50
1.18
47.6
1.7
Melisa
6
1002
9
8
167.0
0.90
1.50
0.80
88.9
1.3
F6z
6
731
20
7
121.8
2.74
3.33
0.96
35.0
1.2
F4z
5
620
24
4
124.0
3.87
4.80
0.67
16.7
0.8
Total
68
7835
224
72
--
--
--
--
--
--
Mean
-
-
--
--
115.2
2.90
3.30
0.90
32.1
1.1

 zInbred lines

Literature Cited

  1. Chen, F. and P. Hayes. 1991/ Effect of exogenous plant growth regulators on in vitro seed growth, embryo development, and haploid production in a cross between H. vulgare L. and H. bulbosum L. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Cult. 20:179-184.
  2. Caglar, G. 1995. Hiyarda (Cucumis sativus L.) Isinlanmis Polenlerle Tozlama yoluyla in situ Haploid Embriyo Uyartimi Ve Haploid Embriyolardan in vitro Bitki Eldesi Uzerinde Arastirmalar. Doktora Tezi. Cukurova Universitesi, Fen bil. Ens. Bahce Bitkileri Ana Bilim Dali, Adana, 227 p.
  3. Caglar, G. and K. Abak. 1995. Farklli hiyar genotiplerinde isinloanmis polenlerle uyartim yoluyla haploid embriyo ve bitke eldesi. Tukiye II. Ulusal Bahce Bitikileri Kongresi, 3-6 Ekim, Adana Cilt 11, p. 159-162.
  4. Przyborowski, J. and K. Niemirowicz-Szczytt. 1994. Main factors affecting cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) haploid embryo development and haploid plant characteristics. Plant Breeding 112:70-75.
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Page citation: Wehner, T.C., Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative;
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send questions to T.C. Wehner; last revised on 15 December, 2009