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Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 21:69-81 (article 27) 1998

1998 Gene List for Melon

Michael Pitrat

INRA. Station de Genetique et d'Amelioration des Fruits et Legumes, BP 94. 84143 Montfavet cedex, France

Gene lists of melon have been published previously (83, 13, 14, 68,71). These lists included different types of genes: disease and pest resistance genes, isozymes, leaf, stem, flower, fruit and seed characters. The 1998 lis includes a total number of 109 loci (Table 1).

Different types of molecular markers are used in studies on polymorphism, for instance RFLP (62, 50), RAPD (50, 44,34) and SSR (44). Genetic maps using different types of markers have been published or are under construction:

  • RAPD and RFLP (2)
  • AFLP (93)
  • RAPD (66)

These maps have been constructed using different melon genotypes as parents and some markers (RAPD, AFLP) cannot be transferrred from one map to another. There is not yet a reference saturated map of melon.

One problem for the gene names is that there is no melon cultivar which is recognized as the reference or "wild type". This accession should be monoecious and susceptible to all diseases. Any proposition can be sent to the author.

Researchers are encouraged to send reports of new genes and seed samples to the melon gene curators. They should consult the lists and the rules of gene nomenclature for the Cucurbitaceae (84, 13) before proposing a gene name and symbol.

Table 1. Gene list of melon. In bold characters are the genes which are maintained by the curators or whicjh are very common in collections (like andromonoecious or white testa. In light characters are genes which either have been apparently lost, are not yet maintained by curators, or have uncertin descriptions.

Gene symbol

Character

 

Lz

References

 

Preferred
Synonym
 

a

M

andromonoecious. Mostly staminate, fewer perfect flowers; on Aa plants, pistillate flowers have no stamens; epistatic to g.

4

78, 85, 92

 

ab
-
abrachiate. Lacking lateral branches. Interacts with a and g (e.g. abab aa G_ plants produce only staminate flowers).
29
Ac
-
Alternaria cucumenerina resistance (in MR-1).
89
Af
-
Aulacophora foveicollis resistance. Resistance to the red pumpkin beetle.
90
Ag
-
Aphis gossypii tolerance. Freedom of leaf curling following aphid infestation (in PI 414723).
5
Ala
-
Acute leaf apex. Dominant over obtuse apex, linked with Lobed leaf. (Ala in Maine Rock, ala in PV Green).
33
Al-1
Al1
Abcission layer-1. One of two dominant genes for abcission layer formation. See Al-2. (Al-1 Al-2 in C68, al-1 al-2 in Pearl)
87
Al-2
A12
Abcission layer-2. One of two dominant genes for abcission layer formation. See Al-1.
87
Ap-11
APS-11
Acid phosphatase-11. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. The heterozygote has two bands. See AP-12.
27
Ap-12
APS-12
Acid phosphatase-12. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. The heterozygote has two bands. See Ap-11.  
27
bd
-
brittle dwarf. Rosette growth with thick leaf. Male fertile, female sterile (in TAM-Perlita45).
16
Bi
-
Bitter. Bitter seedling (common in honeydew or in Charentais type while most American cantaloupes are bi).
54
Bif-1
Bif
Bitter fruit-1. Bitterness of tender fruit in wild melon. Relations with Bi are unknown.
68
Bif-2
-
Bitter fruit-2. One of two complementary independent genes for bitter taste in young fruit: Bif-2Bif-2 Bif-3Bif-3 are bitter. (Relations with Bi and Bif-1 are unknown.
57
Bif-3
-
Bitter fruit-3. One of two complementary independent genes for bitter taste in young fruit: Bif-2Bif-2 Bif-3Bif-3 are bitter. (Relations with a Bi and Bif-1 are unknown).
57
cab-1
-

cucurbit aphid horne yellows virus resistance-1. One of two complementary independent genes for resistance to this virus: cab-1cab-1 cab-2cab-2 plants are resistant. (in PI 124112)

 
21
cab-2
-
cucurbit aphid horne yellows virus resistance-2. One of two complementary independent genes for resistance to this virus: cab-1cab-1 cab2cab-2 plants are resistanc. (in PI124112)  
21
Cb
cbl
cucumber beetle resistance. Interacts with Bi, the nonbiter bibi cbcb being the more resistant (in C922-174-B).
64
cf
-
cochleare folium. Spoon-shaped leaf with upward curling of the leaf margins (spontaneous mutant in Galia)
52
ci
-
curled leaf. Elongated leaves that curl upward and inward. Usually male and female sterile.  
16
dc-1
-
Docus cucurbitae-1 resistance. One of two complementary recessive genes for resistance to the melon fruitfly. See dc-2.
86
dc-2
-
Dacus cucurbitae-2 resistance. One of two complementary recessive genes for resistance to the melon fruitfly. See dc-1.
86
dl
-
dissected leaf (in URSS 4). Highly indented leaves.
10
22
dlv
cl
dissected leaf Velich. First described as cut leaf in Cantaloup de Bellegarde. Allelic to dl.
10
91
dl-2
-

dissected leaf-2. First described as 'hojas hendidas'.

26
dlet

dl

delayed lethal. Reduced growth, necrotic lesions on leaves and premature death.
98
f
-
flava. Chlorophyl deficient mutant. Growth rate reduced (in K 2005).
8
72
fas
-
fasciated stem (in Vilmorin 104)  
30
fe
-
fe (iron) inefficient mutant. Chlorotic leaves with green veins. Turns green when adding Fe in the nutrient solution.  
63
Fn
-
Flaccida necrosis Semi-dominant gene for wilting and necrosis with F pathotype of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (Fn in Doublon, fn in Vedrantais).
2
81
Fom-1
Fom1
Fusarium oxysporum melonis resistance. Resistance to races 0 and 2 and susceptibility to races 1 and 1,2 of Fusarium wilt (Fom-1 in Doublon, fom-1 in Charentais T).
5
81
Fom-2
Fom1,2
Fusarium oxysporum melonis resistance. Resistance to races 0 and 1 and susceptibility to races 2 and 1,2 of Fusarium wilt. (Fom-2 in CM 17187, fom-2 in Charentais T).
6`
81
Fom-3
-
Fusarium oxysporum melonis resistance. Same phenotype as Fom-1 but segregares independently from Fom-1. (Fom-3 in Perlita FR, fom-3 in Charentais T).  
99
g
-
gynomonoecious. Mostly pistillate, fewer perfect flowers. Epistatic to a: A_G_ monoecious; A_gg gynomonoecious; aa G_ andromonoecious; aa gg hermaphrodite.  
78
gf
-
green flesh color. Recessive to salmon. (gt in honeydew, Gf in Smiths' Perfect cantaloupe).  
40
gl
-
glabrous. Trichomes lacking (in Arizona glA).
3
28
gp
-
green petals. Corolla leaf like in color and venation.  
61
Gs
-
Gelatinous sheatharound the seeds. Dominant to absence of genatinous sheath.  
31
go
c
golden. Yellow color of older leaves and mature fruit.  
1
gyc
-
Greenish yellow corolla.  
97
gy
n, M
gynoecious. Interacts with a and g to produce stable gynoecious plants (A_gg gygy) (in WI 998).  
45,47
h
-
halo cotyledons. Yellow halo on the cotyledons, later turning green.
4
65
jf
-
juicy flesh. Segregates discretely in a monogenic ratio in segregating generations.  
9
L
-
Lobed leaf. Dominant on non lobed, linked with Acute leaf apex. (L in Maine Rock, l in P.V. Green).  
33
lmi
-
long mainstem internode. Affects internode length of the main stem but not of the lateral ones (in 48764).
8
58
Mc
-
Mycosphaerella citrullina resistance. High degree of resistance to gummy stem blight (in PI 140471).  
79
Mc-2
Mci
Mycosphaerella citrullina resistance. Moderate degree of resistance to gummy stem blight (in C-1 and C-8)  
79
Mca
-
Macrocalyx.Large, leaf link structure of the sepals in staminate and hermaphrodite flowers (Mca in makuwa, mca in Annamalai).  
32
Me
-
Mealy flesh texture. Dominant to crisp flesh. (Me in C. callosus, me in makuwa).  
31
Ms-1
ms1
male sterile-1. Indehiscent anthers with empty pollen walls in tetrad stage.
3
7
Ms-2
ms2
male sterile-2. Anthers indehiscent, containing mostly empty pollen walls, growth rate reduced.
6
6
Ms-3
ms-L
male sterile-3. Waxy and translucent indehiscent anthers, containing two types of empty pollen sacs..
12
60
Ms-4
-
male sterile-4.Small indehiscent anthers. First male flowers abort at bud stage (in Bulgaria 7).
9
55
Ms-5
-
male sterile-5. Small indehiscent anthers. Empty pollen (in Hivaro, Fox).
13
53
Mt
-
Mottled rind pattern. Dominant to uniform color. Epistatic with Y (not expressed in Y_) and st(Mt_stst and Mt_StSt mottled; mtmt stst striped, mtmt stst uniform). (MT in Annamalai, mt in makuwa).  
31
Mu
-
Musky flavour (olfactory). Dominant on mild flavour (Mu in C. melo callosus, mu in makuwa or Annamalai).  
31
n
-
nectarless. Nectaries lacking in all flowers (in 40099)  
3
Nm
-
Necrosis with Morocco strains of Watermelon Mosaic Virus (Nm in Vedrantais, nm in Ouzbeque).  
80
nsv

-

Melon necrotic spot virus resistance (in Gulfstream, Planters Jumbo).
7
15
O
-
Oval fruit shape. Dominant to round; assoiciated with a.
4
92
P
-
pentamerous. Five carpets and stamens; recessive to trimerous (in Casaba).
7
85
Pa
-
Pale green foliage. PaPa plants are white (lethal):Papa are yellow (in 30567).
3
59
Pc-1
-
Pseudoperonospora cubensis resistance. One of two complementary incompletely dominant genes for downy mildew resistance (in PI 124111). See Pc-2.  
12,88
Pc-2
-
Pseudoperonospora cubensis resistance. One of two complementary incompletely dominant genes for downy mildew resistance (in PI 124111). See Pc-1.  
12,88
Pc-3
-
Pseudoperonospora cubensis resistance. Partial resistance to downy mildew (in PI 414723).  
24

Pc-4

-
Pseudoperonospora cubensis resistance. One of two complementary genes for downy mildew resistance in PI 124112. Interacts with Pc-1 or Pc-2.  
48
Pgd-11

6-PGDH-21

Pgd-21

Phosphoglucodehydrogenase dehydrogenase-11. One of two codominant alleles that regulates 6-phospho-glucodehydrogenase, each regulates one band. The heterozygote has one intermediate band. See Pgd-12.  
27
Pgd-12

6-PGDH-22

Pgd-22

Phosphoglucodehydrogenase dehydrogenase-12. One of two codominant alleles that regulates 6-phospho-glucodehydrogenase, each regulates one band. The heterozygote has one intermediate band. See Pgd-11.  
27
Pgi-11
PGI-11
Phosphoglucoisomerase-11. One of two dominant alleles, each regulating two bands. The heterozygote has three bands. See Pgi-12  
27
Pgi-12
PGI-12
Phosphoglucoisomerase-12 . One of two dominant alleles, each regulating two bands. The heterozygote has three bands. See Pgi-11.  
27
Pgd-21
PGI-21
Phosphoglucoisomerase-21 . One of two dominant alleles, each regulating two bands. See Pgi-22  
27
Pgi-22
Pgi-22
Phosphoglucoisomerase-22. One of two dominant alleles, each regulating two bands. The heterozygote has three bands. Se Pgy-21.  
27
Pgi-22
PGI--22
Phosphoglucoisomerase-22 . One of two dominant alleles, each regulating two bands. The heterozygote has three bands. See Pgi-21.  
27
Pgm-11

PGM-21

Pgm-21

Phosphoglucomutase-11. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating two bands. The heterozygotes have three bands. See Pgm-12

 
27
Pgm-12
PGM-22
Phosphoglucomutase-12. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating two bands. The heterozygotes have three bands,. See Pgm-11  
27

Pm-1

Pm1

Pm-A?

Powdery mildew resistance-1. Resistance to race 1 of Sphaerotheca fuliginea (in PMR 45).

 
42
Pm-2

Pm2

Pm-C?

Powdery mildew resistance-2. Interacts with Pm-1. Resistance to race 2 of Sphaerotheca fuliginea (in PMR 5 with Pm-1).  
8
Pgi-12
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-12. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.  
23, 24, 25
Pgi-2+
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-2+.One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. lanatus.  
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgi-21
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-21. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. lanatus and C. colocynthis.  
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgi-22
-
Phosphoglucoisomeras-22. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. ecirrhosus.  
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgi-23
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-23. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.  
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgi-24
-
Phosphoglucosoimerase-24 . One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. lanatus var. citroides.  
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgi-25
-
Phosphoglucoisomerase-25. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.  
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgm-1+
-
Phosphoglucomutase-11. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in C. lanatus.  
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgm-11
-
Phoephoglucomutase-11. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in C. colocynthis.  
23, 24, 25 47
Pgm-12
-
Phosphoglucomutase-12. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.  
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgm-13
-
Phosphoglucomutase-13. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one plastid band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.  
23, 24, 25, 47
Pgm-2+
-
Phosphoglucomutase-2+. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. lanatus.  
25, 47
Pgm-21
-
Phosphoglucomutase-21. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.  
25, 47
Pgm-22
-
Phosphoglucomutase-22. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in C. lanatus.  
25, 47
Pgm-23
-
Phosphoglucomutase-23. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one cytosolic band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.  
25, 47
pm
-
powdery mildew susceptibility.Susceptibility to Sphaerotheca fuliginea.  
36
Prx-1+
-
Peroxidase-1+. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.  
23, 24, 25
Prx-11
-
Peroidase-11. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.  
23, 24, 25
Prx-12
-
Peroxidase-12. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.  
23, 24, 25
Prx-13
-
Peroxidase-13. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.  
23, 24, 25
Prx-14
-
Prx-14. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. ecirrhosus.  
23, 24, 25
Prx-15
-
Peroxidase-15. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus and C. colocynthis.  
23, 24, 25
Prx-16
-
Prx-16. One of seven codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.  
23, 24, 25
Prx-2
-
Peroxidase-2  
23
Prx-3
-
Peroxidase-3  
23
r
-
red seed coat. Interacts with w and t.  
30
s
-
short seeds. Epistatic to l.  
30
Skdh-1
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-1  
47
Skdh-2+
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-2+ . One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.  
23, 24, 25
Skdh-21
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-21. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.  
23, 24, 25
Skdh-22
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-22. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.  
23, 24, 25
Skdh-23
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-23. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.  
23, 24, 25
Skdh-24
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-24. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. ecirrhosus.  
23, 24, 25
Skdh-45
-
Shikimic acid dehydrogenase-25. One of six codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.  
23, 24, 25
slv
-
Seedling leaf variegation. Conferred by a single recessive gene. Dominant allele at same locus in PI 482261.  
32
Sod-1+
-
Superoxide dismutase-1+ . One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.  
23, 24, 25, 47
Sod-11
-
Superoxide dismutase-11. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.  
23, 24, 25, 47
Sod-12
-
Superoxide dismutase-12. One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.  
23, 24, 25, 47
Sod-2+
-
Superoxidedismutase-2+. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.  
25
Sod-21
-
Superoxide dismutase-21. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.  
25
Sod-3+
-
Superoxide dismutase-3+. One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.  
25
Sod-31
-
Superoxide dismutase-31 . One of two codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.  
25
Sp
-
Spotted cotyledons, leaves and fruit.  
34
Spr-1
-
Seed protein-1  
24
Spr-2
-
Seed protein-2  
24
Spr-3
-
Seed protein-3  
24
Spr-4
Sp-4
Seed protein-4  
23, 24
Spr-5
Sp-5
Seed protein-5  
23, 24
su
Bi, suBi
suppressor of bitterness. Non-bitter fruit. Bitterness in C. colocynthis is due to Su su genotype.  
2, 23
t
bt
tan seed coat. Interacts with r and w.  
19, 30
Tpi-1+
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-1+ . One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.  
23, 24, 25
Tpi-11
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-11. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. colocynthis.  
23, 24, 25
Tpi-12
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-12. One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.  
23, 24, 25
Tpi-13
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-13 . One of four codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.  
23, 24, 25
Tpi-2+
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-2+ . One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in C. lanatus.  
25
Tpi-21
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-21 . One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Acanthosicyos naudinianus.  
25
Tipi-22
-
Triosephosphatase isomerase-22 . One of three codominant alleles, each regulating one band. Found in Praecitrullus fistulosus.  
25
Ure-1
-
Urease-1  
25
w
-
white seed coat. Interacts with r and t.  
30
Wf
W
White flesh. Wf is epistatic to the second gene b (or C?) which conditions yellow (Canary yellow?) and red flesh. Wf_B_ and Wf_bbI are white fleshed, wf wf B_ is yellow fleshed, and wf wf b b is red fleshed.  
38
y
r
yellow flesh ('Golden Honey' type). Recessive to Y (red flesh) .  
10, 28, 31
yo
-
orange flesh ('Tendersweet Orange Flesh'). Allelic to y. Y (red flesh) is dominant to yo (orange flesh) and y (yellow flesh) . yo(orange flesh) is dominant to y (yellow flesh).  
10
Yl
-
Yellow leaf (from 'Yellow Skin'). Incompletely dominant to green leaf.  
42

Literature Cited

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  19. McKay, J.W. 1936. Factor interaction in Citrullus. J. Hered. 27:110-112.
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  48. Zhang, X.P. and M. Wang. 1990. A genetic male-sterile (ms) watermelon from China. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 13:45.
  49. Zhang, X.P., H.T. Skrupska and B.B. Rhodes. 1994. Cytological expression in the male-sterile ms mutant in watermelon. J. Heredity 85:279-285

CGC Gene List Committee:

Cucumber: T.C. Wehner
Muskmelon: M. Pitrat
Watermelon: B.B. Rhodes
Cucurbita spp. : R.W. Robinson
M.G. Hutton
Other genera: R.W. Robinson
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Page citation: Wehner, T.C., Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative;
Created by T.C. Wehner and T. Ng, 1 June 2005; design by C.T. Glenn;
send questions to T.C. Wehner; last revised on 23 October, 2009