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Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 23:78-79 (article260) 2000

Genetic Variability in Bottlegourd, Langenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley

Annie Mathew, Baby Lissy Markose, S. Rajan and K.V. Peter

Department of Olericulture, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, Kerala, India 680 656

India is one of the centres of diversity of bottlegourd (1), endowed with a variety of diverse germplasm. Hence a collection of bottlegourd from different parts of India was made and evaluated for their qualitative and quantitative characters. Twenty-eight such accessions were raised in an experimental plot using randomised block design with two replications.

Among various qualitative characters studied fruit shape and fruit colour exhibited high variation (Fig. 1). Fruit shape ranged from pyriform, dumb bell, curved, crooked neck to elongate forms and fruit color varied from light green to dark green with or without patches. Seed color also recorded variation from tan to dark brown.

Significant difference was observed in accessions for quantitative characters, viz. Vine length, number of primary branches, days to first female flower opening, nodes to first female flower opening, nodes to first female flower, sex ratio, number of fruits per plant, length of fruit, girth of fruit, 100 seed weight, number of seeds per fruit and crude fibre content. Existence of variability in quantitative characters in bottlegourd was also reported by earlier workers (2,3).

Range, phenotypic coefficient of variation (pcv) and genotypic coefficient of variation (gcv) for different characters are given in Table 1. Maximum range of variation was observed for number of seeds per fruit (250.25 - 821.75), followed by fruit set percent (20.00% - 70.,00%). The highest gcvs and pcvs were recorded for number of fruits per plant (38.05 and 50.71) and the lowest for internodal length (0.22 and 6.95). The gcv values were close to the pcv value for the following characters: vine length, number of primary branches, days to first female flower opening, nodes to first female flower, days to first harvest, number of fruits per plant, length of fruit, girth of fruit, 100 seed weight, number of seeds per fruit and crude fibre content.

The study shows that there exists a potential source of gene sanctuary for hottlegourd in the Indian sub continent, which can be effectively harnessed for selection of elite types.

Table 1. Range, mean, phenotypic coefficient of variation and genotype coefficient of variation of different characteristics of bottlegourd.

Characters
Range

Mean + se

14.73 + 1.27pcv
gcv
Vine length (m)
7.97 - 18.02
12.11 + 1.32
23.45
20.76
Number of primary branches
5.25 - 9.75
7.66 + 0.41
16.61
15.75
Internode length (cm)
13.25 - 15.66
14.40 + 1.00
6.95
0.22
Days to first female flower opening
39.00 - 54.75
46.30 + 3.58
12.33
9.60
Nodes to first female flower
9.00 - 21.50
15.53 + 2.03
23.06
18.99
Sex ratio
4.68 - 12.03
7.56 + 1.62
29.10
19.72
Days to first harvest
52.25 - 68.50
61.98 + 5.19
9.89
5.25
Fruit set (%)
20.00 - 70.00
40.18 + 13.83
40.38
21.11
Number of fruits/plants
2.25 - 11.50
4.11 + 1.38
50.71
38.05
Fruit yield/plant (kg)
2.91 - 13.37
7.47 + 2.47
40.47
23.34
Average fruit weight (kg)
0.86 - 2.65
1.79 + 0.44
29.21
15.87
Length of fruit (cm)
28.80 - 72.30
50.98 + 5.27
25.31
23.10
Girth of fruit (cm)
25.50 - 51.50
34.86 + 1.87
19.21
18.44
100 seed weight (g)
11.90-20.10
16.01 + 1.27
13.16
10.51
Number of seeds/fruit
250.25 - 821.75
484.88 + 40.48
28.15
26.88
Duration of crop
82.25 - 112.50
95.97 + 7.53
8.77
3.91
Crude fibre content (%)
12.50 - 18.50
14.73 + 1.27
13.52
10.40

Figure 1

Literature Cited

  1. De Candolle, A. 1882. Origin of Cultivated Plants. Cited by Chadha, M.L. and T. Lal, 1993. Improvement of cucurbits, Adv. Horticulture. (Ed. Chadha, K.L. and G. Kalloo) Malhotra publishing house, New Delhi, p. 151-155.
  2. Singh, S.P., N. K. Singh, I.B. Maurya. 1996. Genetic variability and correlation studies in bottlegourd. [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol,) Standl]. PKV Res. J. 20:88-89.
  3. Tyagi,I.D. 1972. Variability and correlation studies in bottlegourd. Indian J. Horticulture. 29: 219-222.
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