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enhancing the
genetics of economically-important
cucurbits

Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 15:102-109 (1992)

Gene List for Cucurbita spp.


Mark G. Hutton and R.W. Robinson

Alf Christianson Seed Co., 208 Bald Hill Road, Spencer, NY 14883, and Department of Horticultural Science, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456


Concern has been expressed (26) about the use of the "+" symbol for the normal allele of cucurbit genes. The truly wild type does not exist for most cultivated cucurbits as it does for Drosophila. A wild or feral taxon closely related to Cucurbita pepo, such as C. texana or C. fraterna would be inappropriate as a progenitor or wild type species for C. maxima, C. moschata, or other Cucurbita species. The cucurbit gene rules are based (31) on those for the tomato, which also lacks a wild type to typify the normal alleles for each gene. Tomato geneticists have selected the cultivar Marglobe to represent the normal type, but the diversity of cucurbit cultivars precludes selecting only one type to represent the normal. No one cultivar for example is representative of summer squash, winter squash, pumpkins, 'vegetable spaghetti', and gourds of C. pepo. Instead of selecting one cultivar to represent the normal or "+" allele for each gene, it is left to the common sense of the researcher to distinguish between the normal and mutant alleles of a gene he or she names, and to choose a gene symbol corresponding with the name for the mutant allele. The "+" allele need not necessarily signify the phenotype of a putative wild ancestor, but preferably it should be that of a majority of the cultivars. Although the use of "+" is recommended, the use of upper and lower case for the first letter of symbols for dominant and recessive alleles at the same locus is acceptable.

Updated gene lists have recently been published for cucumber (29), melon (CGC 13:58-68, 1990), and watermelon (CGC14:129- 138,1991). Lists for known genes for Cucurbita were published previously (4,5,6,31). In the interest of updating and collecting information on the genetics of Cucurbita in one place, the following is a complete list of known genes. In bold characters are the genes which are maintained by the curators or which are very common in cultivars or collections. In light type are those genes which have been lost or are not yet in the curators' collection. We hope to continue this practice and publish a complete list for the Cucurbita spp. every four years. Researchers are encouraged to send stocks for genes not listed in bold characters, new genes, and article reprints containing descriptions to the gene curators.

Please inform the Cucurbita gene curators (R.W. Robinson or Mark Hutton) of any omissions or errors in the following list of Cucurbita genes.

Gene symbol

Preferred

Synonym

Character

Species

Reference

a

-

androecious. Produces only male flowers

pepo

21

Aat-mb

-

Aspartate aminotransferase - isozyme

micromaxima x ecuadorensis

51

Aat-m

Aat-ml

Aspartate aminotransferase mitochondria isozyme-1

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Aat-m2

-

Aspartate aminotransferase mitochondria isozyme-2

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Aat-p2

-

Aspartate aminotransferase plastid isozyme-2

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Acp

Acp-1

Acid phosphatase - isozyme-1

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Acp-2

-

Acid phosphatase - isozyme-2

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Aldo-p

-

Aldolase - plastid isozyme

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

B1

-

Bicolor-1. Precocious yellow fruit pigmentation; modified by Ep-1, Ep-2 and Ses-B

pepo

41,42

B2

-

Bicolor-2 (precocious yellow fruit)

maxima

44

Bi

-

Bitter fruit. High cucurbitacin content in fruit

pepo

2,16,52

bl

-

blue fruit color. Incompletely recessive to green

maxima

18

Bu

-

Bush habit. Short internodes; dominant to vine habit in young plant stage but recessive at maturity

pepo, maxima

8,40,47

cr

-

cream corolla. Cream to nearly white petals for cr cr, yellow for cr +, and orange for + +; derived from C. okeechobeensis

moschata

34

cu

-

cucurbitacin content. Reduced cucurbitacin content

pepo

39

D

-

Dark green stem. Dominant to light green stem

pepo

15

Di

-

Disc fruit shape. Dominant to spherical

pepo

46

Ep-1

-

Extender of pigmentation-1; modifier of B1

pepo

45

Ep-2

-

Extender of pigmentation-2; modifier of B1

pepo

45

Est

-

Esterase isozyme

maxima x ecuadorensis

49

Fr

-

Fruitfly (Dacus cucurbitae) resistance

maxima

25

G

a,m

Gynoecious sex expression

foetidissima

9,14

Gal

Gal-1

B-galactosidase isozyme-1

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Gal-2

-

B-galactosidase isozyme-2

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Gb

-

Green band on inner side of base of petal; dominant to no band

pepo

10

gc

-

green corolla. Green, leaf-like petals

pepo

48

Got

Got-1

Glutamine-oxaloacetate isozyme-1

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Got-2

-

Glutamine-oxaloacetate isozyme-2

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Gpi-c

Gpi-c1

Glucosephosphate isomerase cytosolic isozyme-1

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Gpi-c2

-

Glucosephosphate isomerase cytosolic isozyme-2

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Gr

G

Green rind. Dominant to buff skin of mature fruit

moschata

32

Hi

-

Hard rind inhibitor

maxima

17

Hr

-

Hard rind

pepo

23

i

-

intensifier of the cr gene for cream flowers

okeechobeensis

34

I-T

-

Inhibitor of the T gene for trifluralin resistance

moschata

1

ldh

Idh-1

Isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme-1

pepo

7,20

Idh-2

-

Isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme-2

pepo

7,20

Idh-3

-

Isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme-3

pepo

7,20

l

c

light fruit color. Uniform light intensity of fruit pigmentation; modified by St

pepo

15,27,41

l-2

-

light pigmentation of fruit - 2

pepo

27

Lap

-

Leucine aminopeptidase isozyme

maxima x ecuadorensis

49

lo

-

lobed leaves; recessive

maxima

11

Lo-2

-

Lobed leaves - 2; dominant

equadorensis

17

lt

-

leafy tendril. Tendrils with laminae

pepo

36

ly

-

light yellow corolla. Recessive orange yellow

pepo

36

M

-

Mottled leaves. Silver gray areas in axils of leaf veins

pepo, maxima, moschata

3,35,38

Mdh-m

Mdh-m1

Malate dehydrogenase mitochondria isozyme-I

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Mdh-m2

-

Malate dehydrogenase mitochondria isozyme-2

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Mdh-c2

-

Malate dehydrogenase cytosolic isozyme-2

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

ms-1

ms1

male sterile-1. Male flowers abort before anthesis

pepo

13

ms-2

ms2

male sterile-2. Male flowers abort

pepo

13

n

-

naked seeds. Lacking a lignified seed coat

pepo

16,37

Per

Per-1

Peroxidase isozyme-1

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Per-3

-

Peroxidase isozyme-3

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Pg1

Pgi-1

Phosphoglucase isomerase isozyme-1

pepo

7,20

Pgi-2

-

Phosphoglucase isomerase isozyme-2

pepo

7,20

Pgi-3

-

Phosphoglucase isomerase isozyme-3

pepo

7,20

Pgm-c2

-

Phosphoglucomutase cytosolic isozyme-2

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Pgm-p

-

Phosphoglucomutase plastid isozyme

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Pm

-

Powdery mildew resistance. Resistance to Sphaerotheca fuliginea

lundelliana

30

r

-

recessive white. White fruit color

pepo

15

Rd

-

Red skin. Red external fruit color; dominant to green, white, yellow and gray

maxima

22

ro

-

rosette leaf. Lower lobes of leaves slightly spiraled

pepo

23

s

-

sterile. Male flowers small, without pollen; female flower sterile

maxima

19

Ses-B

-

Selective suppression of gene B1

pepo

43

Skdh

-

Shikimate dehydrogenase isozyme

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Sod

Sod-1

Superoxide dismutase isozyme-1

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

St

lst

Striped fruit. Longitudinal stripes on fruit, conspicuous if I but inconspicuous if I+

pepo

35

T

-

Trifluralin resistance. Dominant to susceptibility to the herbicide; modified by I-T

moschata

1

Tpi-c2

-

Triosephosphatase isomerase cytosolic isozyme-2

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

Tpi-p2

-

Triosephosphatase isomerase plastid isozyme-2

maxima x ecuadorensis

51

v

-

virescent. Yellow-green young leaves

maxima

12

W

-

White fruit. Dominant to green mature fruit, partially epistatic to Y

pepo

47

Wf

-

White flesh. Dominant to cream flesh color

pepo

47

Wt

-

Warty fruit. Dominant to smooth

pepo

47

Y

-

Yellow fruit color. Dominant to green

pepo

47

Ygp

-

Yellow-green placenta. Dominant to yellow placental color

pepo

10

ys

-

yellow seedling. Lacking chlorophyll; lethal

pepo

23

zym

-

zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance

ecuadorensis, moschata (not yet established if these genes are allelic)

24,28,33

Literature Cited

  1. Adeoye, A.A. and D.P. Coyne. 1981. Inheritance of resistance to trifluralin toxicity in Cucurbita moschata Poir. HortScience 16:774-775.

  2. Contardi, H.G. 1939. Estudios geneticos en "Cucurbita" y consideraciones agronomicas. Physis 18:331-347.

  3. Coyne, D.P. 1970. Inheritance of mottle-leaf in Cucurbita moschata Poir. HortScience 5:226-227.

  4. Cucurbit Gene List Committee. 1979. New genes for the Cucurbitaceae. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 2:49-53.

  5. Cucurbit Gene List Committee. 1982. Update of cucurbit gene list and nomenclature rules. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 5:62- 66.

  6. Cucurbit Gene List Committee. 1988. Gene list for Cucurbita spp. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 11:96-103.

  7. Decker, D.S. 1985. Numerical analysis of variation in Cucurbita pepo. Econ. Bot. 39:300-309.

  8. Denna, D.W. and H.M. Munger. 1963. Morphology of the bush and vine habits and the allelism of the bush genes in Cucurbita maxima and C. pepo squash. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 82:370-377.

  9. Dossey, B.F., W.P. Bernis and J.C. Scheerens. 1981. Genetic control of gynoecy in the buffalo gourd. J. Heredity 72:355-356.

  10. Dutta, L.P. and P. Nath. 1972. Inheritance of flower and fruit characters in squash, Cucurbita pepo L. Tropical Hort. 1:69-74.

  11. Dyutin, K.E. 1980. (Spontaneous mutant of Cucurbita maxima Duch. Squash with lobed leaves). Genetika 16:176- 178. (In Russian)

  12. Dyutin, K.E. 1981. (Inheritance of yellow-green coloration of the young leaves in Cucurbita maxima Duch.). Tsitologiya i Genetika 15(5):81-82. (In Russian)

  13. Eisa, H.M. and H.M. Munger. 1968. Male sterility in Cucurbita pepo. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 92:473-479.

  14. Fulks, B.K., J.C. Scheerens and W.P. Bemis. 1979. Sex expression in Cucurbila foetidissima HBK. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 2:36.

  15. Globerson, D. 1969. The inheritance of white fruit and stem color in summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L. Euphytica 18:249-255.

  16. Grebenscikov, 1. 1954. Notulae cucurbitologicae. 1. Zur Vererbung der Bitterkeit and Kurztriebigkeit bei Cucurbita pepo L. Kulturptlanze 2:145-154.

  17. Herrington, M.E. and J.P. Brown. 1988. Inheritance of leaf and fruit characteristics in Cucurbita maxima Duch cv. Queensland Blue X C. ecuadorensis Cutler and Whitaker. Queensland J. Agr. Animal Sci. 45:45-48

  18. Hutchins, A.E. 1935. The interaction of blue and green color factors in Hubbard squash. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 33:514.

  19. Hutchins, A.E. 1944. A male and female sterile variant in squash, Cucurbita maxima Duch. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 44:494-496.

  20. Kirkpatrick, K.J., D.S. Decker and H.D. Wilson. 1985. Allozyme differentiation in the Cucurbita pepo complex: C. pepo var. medullosa vs. C. texana. Econ. Bot. 39:289-299.

  21. Kubicki, B. 1970. Androecious strains of Cucurbita pepo L. Genet. Polonica 11:45-51

  22. Lotsy, J.P. 1920. Cucurbita strijdvragen. II. Eigen onderzoekingen. Genetica 2:1-21.

  23. Mains, E.B. 1950. Inheritance in Cucurbita pepo. Papers Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Letters 36:27-30.

  24. Munger, H.M. and R. Provvidenti. 1987. Inheritance of resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus in Cucurbita moschata. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 10:80-81

  25. Nath, P., O.P. Dutta, S. Velayudhan and K.R.M. Swamy. 1976. Inheritance of resistance to fruit fly in pumpkin. Sabrao J. 8:117-119.

  26. Paris, H.S. 1989. List, description, and interactions of the genes affecting fruit color in Cucurbita pepo. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rept. 12:72-74.

  27. Paris, H.S. and H. Nerson. 1986. Genes for intense pigmentation of squash. J. Hered. 77:403-409.

  28. Paris, H.S., S. Cohen, Y. Burger, and R. Yoseph. 1988. Single gene resistance to zucchini mosaic virus in Cucurbita moschata. Euphytica 37:27-29.

  29. Pierce, L.K. and T.C. Werner. 1990. Review of genes and linkage groups in cucumber. HortScience 25:605-615.

  30. Rhodes, A.M. 1964. Inheritance of powdery mildew resistance in the genus Cucurbita. Plant Dis. Rptr. 48:54-55.

  31. Robinson, R.W., H.M. Munger, T.W. Whitaker and G.W. Bohn. 1976. Genes of the Cucurbitaceae. HortScience 11:554-568.

  32. Robinson, R.W. 1987. Inheritance of fruit skin color in Cucurbita moschata. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 10:84.

  33. Robinson, R.W., N.F. Weeden, and R. Provvidenti. 1988. Inheritance of resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus in the interspecific cross Cucurbita maxima x C. ecuadorensis. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 11:74-75.

  34. Roe, N.E. and W.P. Bemis. 1977. Corolla color in Cucurbita. J. Heredity 68:193-194.

  35. Scarchuk, J. 1954. Fruit and leaf characters in summer squash. J. Heredity 45:295-297.

  36. Scarchuk, J. 1974. Inheritance of light yellow corolla and leafy tendrils in gourd (Cucurbita pepo var. ovifera Alef.). HortScience 9:464.

  37. Schoniger, G. 1952. Vorlaufige Mitteilung uber das Verhalten der Testa und Farbgene bei versheidenen Kreuzungen innerhalb der Kurbisart Cucurbita pepo L. Zuchter 22:316-337.

  38. Scott, D.H. and M.E. Riner. 1946. A mottled leaf character in winter squash. J. Heredity 37:27-28.

  39. Sharma, G.C. and C.V. Hall. 1971. Cucurbitacin B and total sugar inheritance in Cucurbita pepo related to spotted cucumber beetle feeding. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 96:750-754.

  40. Shifriss, O. 1947. Developmental reversal of dominance in Cucurbita pepo. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 50:330-346.

  41. Shifriss, O. 1955. Genetics and origin of the bicolor gourds. J. Heredity 46:213-222.

  42. Shifriss, O. 1966. Behavior of gene B in Cucurbita. Veg. Improvement Newsletter 8:7-8.

  43. Shifriss, O. 1982. Identification of a selective suppressor gene in Cucurbita pepo L. HortScience 17:637-638.

  44. Shifriss, O. 1989. Relationship between the B genes of two Cucurbita species, II. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 12:75-78.

  45. Shifriss, O. and H.S. Paris. 1981. Identification of modifier genes affecting the extent of precocious fruit pigmentation in Cucurbita pepo L. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 106:653-660.

  46. Sinnott, E.W. 1922. Inheritance of fruit shape in Cucurbita pepo L. Bot. Gaz. 74:95-103.

  47. Sinnott, E.W. and G.B. Durham. 1922. Inheritance in the summer squash. J. Heredity 13:177-186.

  48. Superak, T.H. 1987. A green corolla mutant in Cucurbita pepo. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 10:103.

  49. Wall, J.R. and T.W. Whitaker. 1971. Genetic control of leucine aminopeptidase and esterase isozymes in the interspecific cross Cucurbita ecuadorensis x C. maxima. Biochem. Genet. 5:223-229.

  50. Weeden, N.F., R.W. Robinson and F. Ignart. 1984. Linkage between an isozyme locus and one of the genes controlling resistance to watermelon mosaic virus 2 in Cucurbita ecuadorensis. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 7:86.

  51. Weeden, N.F. and R.W. Robinson. 1986. Allozyme segregation ratios in the interspecific cross Cucurbita maxima x C. ecuadorensis suggest that hybrid breakdown is not caused by minor alterations in chromosome structure. Genetics 114:593-609.

  52. Whitaker, T.W. 1951. A species cross in Cucurbita. J. Heredity 42:65-69.

 

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