Dedication: Thomas W. Whitaker
Horticultural Sciences Department, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456
Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011
Additional index words. cucurbit, Cucurbitaceae, botany, anthropology, cytogenetics, taxonomy, germplasm, gourd, melon, squash, Cucurbita, Cucumis, Lagenaria, Echinocystis, lettuce, Amaryllis, Xenoglossa, Peponapsis
Abstract. Botanist and horticulturist; geneticist and plant breeder; anthropologist and historian; educator, editor, and writerTom Whitaker was all these things and much more. He advanced the scientific knowledge of Cucurbita and other cucurbits more than anyone else, yet he remained humble, unassuming, and unchanged by the fame of his scientific accomplishments. We dedicate the germplasm section of Cucurbitaceae '98 to the memory of this eminent scientist who was born on 13 Aug. 1904 and died on 29 Nov. 1993 at the age of 89.
We acknowledge the help of Thomas Andres in compiling this list of cucurbit publications by T.W. Whitaker. Whitaker also authored significant publications about lettuce and Amaryllis, and he was a renowned world authority for those crops as well as for cucurbits.
Tom Whitaker grew up on a farm in the Central Valley of California. His farm background gave him an appreciation of the agricultural benefits that could be achieved by plant breeding. He helped to develop some of the most important vegetable varieties of this century, including 'Great Lakes' lettuce and powdery mildew-resistant melons.
He was not from an affluent family, and paid for his modest college costs at the University of California at Davis by washing dishes, hoeing weeds, and other chores. His intelligence and diligence impressed H. Jones, W. Robbins, J.T. Rosa and others on the faculty there. It was on the recommendation of Rosa that he was awarded a DuPont fellowship at the University of Virginia after he received his BS in 1927 from Davis.
It was at the University of Virginia, where he spent summers engaged in research at the Blandy Experimental Farm in the Shenandoah Valley, that he began his professional investigations of the Cucurbitaceae. While a graduate student there he determined the chromosome number for cucurbit species, a field of research little investigated before, and he deduced the basic chromosome number for different genera of the Cucurbitaceae. He used this information to draw conclusions on the phylogeny of cucurbits.
He would later explore the phylogenetic relationships of the Cucurbitaceae by other means, including interspecific hybridization, numerical taxonomy, isozymes, pollinator relationships, geographic distribution, the archeological record, and herbals. Tom Whitaker did much to advance the knowledge of the origin and evolution of cucurbits.
He made a pioneering study of the sex expression of cucurbits. In a paper published in 1931, he reported the ratio of staminate to pistillate or perfect flowers for 49 species of cultivated cucurbits. He correctly predicted that in the future the sex expression of cucurbits could be experimentally controlled.
After receiving his MS and PhD degree in 1929 and 1931 in genetics and cytology from the University of Virginia, he was a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University's Arnold Arboretum for three years with E.M. East, W.E. Castle, and other classical geneticists. Then for the next two years he was an Associate Professor at Agnes Scott College in Georgia, where he taught biology and botany.
Whitaker joined the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1936 as a geneticist at La Jolla, California. He worked there and at the Imperial Valley Experiment Station for the rest of his career, breeding melon and lettuce and studying Cucurbita and other cucurbits.
He was an invited speaker at many scientific meetings, including the Third International Symposium on Sub-Tropical and Tropical Horticulture in India. While in India, he served as lecturer and crop advisor for cucurbits at the University of Rajistan, and also visited the Indian Agricultural Research Institute at New Delhi and many other centers of cucurbit research.
Whitaker was always willing and eager to share the credit for his scientific accomplishments, and he collaborated with many researchers. Notable was his cooperation with archeologists, including H.C. Cutler and R.S. MacNeish. He identified from fragments of peduncles or seeds thousands of years old the species of Cucurbita or Lagenaria used by prehistoric peoples.
He also generously shared his knowledge and germplasm with other researchers. His seed and recommendation for using Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii as a source of disease resistance is the basis for the powdery mildew resistant squash and pumpkin cultivars recently introduced. Cucurbita ecuadorensis, a species he discovered, is the source of multiple virus resistance for the 'Whitaker' cultivar of summer squash that was named in his honor. His collaborative efforts with fellow geneticists and horticulturists (notably, G.W. Bohn) on subjects ranging from melon disease resistance sources, and plant growth and reproduction regulators to reviews of known cucurbit genes and production practices span an era from the 1930s to the late 1980s.
The book CucurbitsBotany, Cultivation, and Utilization that Tom Whitaker and Glen Davis wrote was published in 1962. It was a monumental assemblage of cucurbit information, the first comprehensive book about cucurbits ever written. It helped and influenced countless researchers and students and is still a valuable source of information today, 36 years after it was published.
As measure of his active professional life and wide-ranging influence, Whitaker participated in numerous botanical and horticultural societies, and was honored by many awards and positions of leadership. He was awarded two Guggenheim fellowships and was a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He served as President and Editor of the American Society for Horticultural Science. He was designated Distinguished Economic Botanist by the Society of Economic Botany in 1980, and served as President of that society. He functioned as Executive Secretary of the American Plant Society and President of the San Diego Society of Natural History. The Botanical Society of America rewarded him with their Merit Award, and a volume of the Horticultural Review is dedicated to him. He received many other well deserved scientific awards and honors, but the honor that would have meant the most to Tom Whitaker is the esteem and appreciation of his research by other cucurbit researchers, including those attending Cucurbitaceae '98.
Table 1. Cucurbitaceae accessions in Thomas W. Whitaker's seed collection, 1987. USDAARS, Imperial Valley Conservation Research Center, Brawley, Calif.z
Taxon n Country(s) of origin
Apodanthera undulata 1 United States
Benincasa hispida 3 United States
Bryonopsis sp. 1 United States
C. brevipes 1 Venezuela
C. spectabilis 1 Venezuela
Cionosicyos macranthus 1 Mexico
Coccinia abyssinica 1 Ethiopia
C. colocynthis 5 Algeria, Saudi Arabia, United States, unknown
C. lanatus 2 Afghanistan, Paraguay
C. argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma var. argyrosperma 2 Guatemala, Mexico
C. argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma var. callicarpa 11 Mexico, United States
C. argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma var. palmeri 34 Mexico
C. argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma var. stenosperma 6 Mexico
C. argyrosperma ssp. sororia 34 El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua
C. argyrosperma ssp. sororia x ssp. argyrosperma (natural hybrids) 6 Mexico
C. cordata 2 Mexico
C. cylindrata 5 Mexico
C. digitata 2 Mexico
C. digitata x C. palmata (natural hybrids) 7 Mexico, United States
C. ecuadorensis 8 Ecuador
C. ficifolia 20 Argentina, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nepal,
Peru, United Kingdom
C. foetidissima 13 United States, Mexico
C. lundelliana 7 Belize, Guatemala, Mexico
C. maxima ssp. andreana 6 Argentina, Bolivia
C. maxima ssp. maxima 26 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Peru, South
Africa, United States
C. moschata 30 Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, India, Malaysia, Mexico,
United States, unknown
C. okeechobeensis ssp. martinezii 5 Mexico
C. okeechobeensis ssp. okeechobeensis 4 United States
C. palmata 15 Mexico, United States
C. pedatifolia 1 Mexico
C. pepo ssp. pepo 32 Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, Kenya,
Mexico, United States
C. pepo ssp. ovifera var. texana 3 United States
C. explodens 1 unknown
C. pedata 5 Argentina, Peru, United States
Echinocystis lobata 1 United States
L. rufa 1 Nigeria
L. siceraria 39 Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Ghana, Mexico, Niger,
Nigeria, Peru, United States, unknown
L. sphaerica 3 Kenya, South Africa
L. acutangula 4 India, Malaysia, unknown
L. aegyptiaca 1 Mexico
Marah macrocarpus 2 United States
M. balsimina 2 Mexico, United States
M. charantia 4 Costa Rica, Malaysia, United States, Vietnam
P. vogelii 2 Ethiopia, Kenya
Peponium sp. 1 Tanzania
Polyclathra cucumerina 1 Mexico
Posadaea sphaercarpa 1 unknown
Praecitrullus fistulosus 3 India
S. attenuatum 1 Mexico
S. palmeri 2 Mexico
Sicana odorifera 6 Guatemala, Mexico, United States, unknown
Trichosanthes cucumerina var. anguina 2 Malaysia, Nepal
Zehneria sp. 1 Zambia
zCompiled by Laura C. Merrick; Cucumis sp. not included in the inventory.
Whitaker "retired" in 1973, but he continued to make significant scientific contributions for another 20 years. It was after he officially retired that he made collection trips to obtain germplasm of traditional cultivars and wild cucurbits from Mexico and Central America, and to Portugal, Turkey, and Greece for lettuce germplasm. He also made a collection trip to South America for cucurbit and amaryllis germplasm. The exploration trips resulted in some 300 accessions of cucurbitsCucurbita species alone accounted for 90% of itdonated to the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System and duplicated in gene banks in the host countries. A consulting trip for the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources in 1986 took him to Bolivia and Costa Rica to evaluate management of cucurbit germplasm in national and regional gene banks.
An inventory of seed stocks present in Whitaker's own assembled collection at a time near the end of his career provides a sense of the lasting legacy bequeathed by Whitaker (Table 1). His species collection contains 22 cucurbit genera represented by more than 40 wild and cultivated species originating from 29 countries in Africa, Asia, and the Americas (his vast collection of Cucumis materials was not included in the complied inventory). Whitaker acquired about one-fifth of the collection from materials donated by other researchers to the gene bank collections maintained by the National Plant Germplasm System, but the remainder resulted from many decades of a lively exchange of plant materials between Tom and various geneticists, botanists, anthropologists, and other researchers worldwide. Another set of >1300 samples consisted of seed stock from numerous inter- and intraspecific crossesmainly of Cucurbita, some of Lagenariahe attempted during his investigations of species relationships and breeding potential.
Two genera constitute the majority of Whitaker's species collection (Table 1). Nearly three-quarters of the collection is Cucurbita, the cucurbit genus most intensively investigated by Whitaker. The Cucurbita accessions are predominantly traditional cultivars and wild species from Mexico and other Latin American countries. In particular, the rich taxonomic and geographic diversity, and relatively large quantity of wild species represented in the collection account for its
uniqueness in comparison to other assembled collections of cucurbit genetic resources. Another 10% of the collection consisted of cultivars of the bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria from African, Latin American and U.S. sources.
Some of the individual accessions within Whitaker's seed collection depict the broad array of subject matter encompassed by the scientific endeavors undertaken by Whitaker and his numerous collaborators (see the attached bibliography). For example, from the 1950s through the 1970s, Whitaker, W.P. Bemis and their colleagues examined hundreds of accessions of wild taxa of Cucurbita in relation to each other and their domesticated counterparts. Their work formed the basis for formulation of a series of published hypotheses about evolutionary history in the genus.
Another project with Bemis targeted one of the wild species, the buffalo gourd, Cucurbita foetidissima, for its potential as an arid land-adapted new crop for commercial extraction of oil from its seeds and starch from its fleshy, perennial roots.
Starting as far back as the 1940s, collaborative investigations by Whitaker and H.C. Cutler and other ethnobotanists examined extant traditional cultivars and wild species as well as archeological plant remains from sites in the Americas. The studies lead to a series of significant publications about patterns of domestication, variation, distribution, and use of squash in the New World.
Accessions of Cucurbita ecuadorensis in Whitaker's collection include the original type specimen utilized by Cutler and Whitaker to describe it as a new species in 1969. Similarly, accessions of C. argyrosperma (then known by its synonym, C. mixta) helped to form the basis for its first published English language descriptionin 1956, again by Cutler and Whitakerrecognizing it as a domesticated species distinct from C. moschata.
Two more Whitaker collaborators, the entomologists P.D. Hurd and E.G. Linsley, published a series of taxonomic monographs of species of two Cucurbita-specialist bee genera, Xenoglossa and Peponapsis, during the 1960s. They cited a number of accessions of wild Cucurbita species from Whitaker's collection as the source plants for type specimens of species of these so-called squash and gourd bees.
Cutler, H.C. and T.W. Whitaker. 1969. A new species of Cucurbita from Ecuador. Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden 55:392396.
Davis, G.N. and T.W. Whitaker. 1942. Growing and handling cantaloupes and other melons. Univ. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ. 352.
Davis, G.N., T.W. Whitaker, and G.W. Bohn. 1953. Production of muskmelons in California. Univ. Calif. Agri. Expt. Sta. Circ. 429.
Deakin, J.R. , G.W. Bohn, and T.W. Whitaker. 1971. Interspecific hybridization in Cucumis. Econ. Bot. 25:195211.
Hurd, P.D., E.G. Linsley, and T.W. Whitaker. 1971. Squash and gourd bees (Peponapsis, Xenoglossa) and the origin of the cultivated Cucurbita. Evolution 25:218234.
Jagger, I.C., T.W. Whitaker, and D.R. Porter. 1938. A new biologic form of powdery mildew on musk-melons in the Imperial Valley of California. Plant Dis. Rptr. 22:275276.
McCreight, J.D., G.W. Bohn, and T.W. Whitaker. 1987. Honeydew muskmelon. HortScience 22:177.
McGoldrick, P.T., G.W. Bohn, and T.W. Whitaker. 1954. An acetocarmine technique for Cucurbita. Stain Technol. 29:127130.
Paulus, A.O., J. Nelson, F. Shibuya, T.W. Whitaker, J. House, H. Meister, and G.W. Bohn. 1972. Fungicides and methods of application for the control of cantaloupe powdery mildew. Plant Dis. Rptr. 56:935938.
Pryor, D.E., T.W. Whitaker, and G.N. Davis. 1946. The development of powdery mildew resistant cantaloupes. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 47:347356.
Rhodes, A.M., W.P. Bemis, T.W. Whitaker, and S.G. Carmer. 1968. A numerical taxonomic study of Cucurbita. Brittonia 20:251266.
Robinson, R.W. and T.W. Whitaker. 1975. Cucumis, p. 146150. In: R.C. King (ed.). Handbook of genetics. vol. 2. Plenum Press, New York.
Robinson, R.W., H.M. Munger, T.W. Whitaker, and G.W. Bohn. 1976. Genes of the Cucurbitaceae. HortScience 11:554568.
Robinson, R.W., T.W. Whitaker, and G.W. Bohn. 1970. Promotion of pistillate flowering in Cucurbita by 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid. Euphytica 19:180183.
Wall, J.R. and T.W. Whitaker. 1971. Genetic control of leucine amiopeptidase and esterase isozymes in the interspecific cross Cucurbita ecuadorensis x C. maxima. Biochem. Genet. 5:223229.
West, M. and T.W. Whitaker. 1979. Prehistoric cultivated cucurbits from the Viru Valley, Peru. Econ. Bot. 33:275279.
Whitaker, T.W. 1930. Chromosome numbers in cultivated cucurbits. Amer. J. Bot. 17:10331040.
Many of the original plant materials studied by Whitaker were not preserved beyond their use in the myriad projects in which he was involved. However, recently the Genetic Resource Conservation Program of the University of California and the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System carried out a cooperative project to "rescue" and preserve many of the aging, yet important genetic resources held within the collection of seed stocks left near the end of Whitaker's career.
Other material from Whitaker's research efforts, while no longer viable, is maintained in the form of reference collections, such as the herbarium specimens from Whitaker and Liberty Hyde Bailey's 1940 grow-out of Mexican landraces sent to them by anthropologist Isabel Kelly. The latter specimens are duplicated at Cornell University's L.H. Bailey Hortorium and the Missouri Botanical Garden.
Tom Whitaker was a prolific and talented author of both popular and scholarly articles and book reviews. Following is a list of some of his cucurbit publications.
Bibliography of cucurbit publications by T.W. Whitaker
Bemis, W.P. and T.W. Whitaker. 1965. Natural hybridization between Cucurbita digitata and C. palmata. Madroño 18:3947.
Bemis, W.P. and T.W. Whitaker. 1969. The xerophytic Cucurbita of northwestern Mexico and southwestern United States. Madroño 20:3341.
Bemis, W.P., A.M. Rhodes, T.W. Whitaker, and S.G. Carmer. 1970. Numerical taxonomy applied to Cucurbita relationships. Amer. J. Bot. 57:404412.
Bemis, W.P., J.W. Berry, C.W. Weber, and T.W. Whitaker. 1978. The buffalo gourd: a new potential horticultural crop. HortScience 13:235240.
Bohn, G.W. and T.W. Whitaker. 1949. A gene for male sterility in the muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.). Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 53:309314.
Bohn, G.W. and T.W. Whitaker. 1961. A new host for the cucurbit powdery mildew fungus. Plt. Dis. Rptr. 45:232234.
Brooks, R.H., L. Kaplan, H.S. Cutler, and T.W. Whitaker. 1962. Plant material from a cave on the Rio Zape, Durango, Mexico. Amer. Antiquity 27:356369.
Cutler, H.C. and T.W. Whitaker. 1956. Cucurbita mixta. Pang.: Its classification and relationships. Bul. Torrey Bot. Club 83:253260.
Cutler, H.C. and T.W. Whitaker. 1961. History and distribution of the cultivated cucurbits in the Americas. Amer. Antiquity 26:469485.
Cutler, H.C. and T.W. Whitaker. 1967. Cucurbits from the Tehuacan caves, p. 212219. In: D.S. Byers (ed.). The prehistory of the Tehuacan Valley. vol. 1. Univ. Texas Press.
Whitaker, T.W. 1931. Sex ratio and sex expression in the cultivated cucurbits. Amer. J. Bot. 18:359366.
Whitaker, T.W. 1932. Fertile gourdpumpkin hybrids. J. Hered. 23:427430.
Whitaker, T.W. 1933. Cytological and phylogenetic studies in the Cucurbitaceae. Bot. Gaz. 94:780790.
Whitaker, T.W. 1947. American origin of the cultivated cucurbits. Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden 34:101111.
Whitaker, T.W. 1948. Lagenaria: a pre-Columbian cultivated plant in the Americas. Southwest J. Anthropol. 4:4968.
Whitaker, T.W. 1950. Polyploidy in Echinocystis. Madroño 5:209211.
Whitaker, T.W. 1951. A species cross in Cucurbita. J. Hered. 42:6569.
Whitaker, T.W. 1952. Genetic and chlorophyll studies of a yellow-green mutant in musk-melon. Plant Physiol. 27:263268.
Whitaker, T.W. 1952. Natural cross-pollination in musk-melon. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 60:391396.
Whitaker, T.W. 1954. A cross between an annual species and a perennial species of Cucurbita. Madroño 12:213217.
Whitaker, T.W. 1956. The origin of the cultivated Cucurbita. Amer. Natural. 90:171176.
Whitaker, T.W. 1957. Archaeological Cucurbitaceae from a cave in southern Baja California. Southwest Anthropol. 13:144148.
Whitaker, T.W. 1959. An interspecific cross in Cucurbita (C. lundelliana Bailey x C. moschata Duch.). Madroño 15:413.
Whitaker, T.W. 1960. Archeological cucurbits. Mo. Bot. Garden Bul. 48:1314.
Whitaker, T.W. 1961. Biosystematics of the cultivated Cucurbita. In: Recent advances in botany. IX Intl. Bot. Congr. 1:858862.
Whitaker, T.W. 1962. An interspecific cross in Cucurbita : C. lundelliana Bailey x C. maxima Duchesne. Euphytica 11:273281.
Whitaker, T.W. 1962. Breeding squash and pumpkins, p. 331350. In: H. Kappert and W. Rudorf (eds.). Handbuch Pflanzenzuchtung. vol. 6.
Whitaker, T.W. 1964. Gourds and people. Amer. Hort. Mag. 43:207213.
Whitaker, T.W. 1965. Cucurbita species crosses as a source of resistance to powdery mildew. Veg. Imp. Nwsltt. 7:7.
Whitaker, T.W. 1968. Ecological aspects of the cultivated Cucurbita. HortScience 3:911.
Whitaker, T.W. 1970. Lagenaria in Ghana. Gourd Seed 3l(3):28.
Whitaker, T.W. 1970. Muskmelon vs. cantaloupe. HortScience 5:86.
Whitaker, T.W. 1971. Endemism and pre-Columbian migration of the bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl., p. 320327. In: C.L. Riley, J.C. Kelly, C.W. Pennington, and R.L. Rands (eds.). Man across the sea: Problems of pre-Columbian contacts. Univ. Texas Press.
Whitaker, T.W. 1973. The cucurbits of India. Proc. Trop.
Region Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 17:255259.
Whitaker, T.W. 1974. Cucurbita, p. 135144. In: R.C. King (ed.). Handbook of genetics. vol. 2. Plenum Press, New York.
Whitaker, T.W. 1974. Cucurbitales, p. 362364. Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 15th ed.
Whitaker, T.W. 1974. Squash, pumpkins and gourds (Cucurbita spp.). In: J. Leon (ed.). Handbook of plant introduction in tropical crops. FAO. Rome.
Whitaker, T.W. 1976. Recent advances in the improvement of cucurbitaceous crops. In: K.L. Chadha (ed.). Proc. 3rd Symp. Sub-Tropical Tropical Horticulture. Bangalore, India 3:3743.
Whitaker, T.W. 1977. Mexico's west coast vegetable industry. HortScience 12:535538.
Whitaker, T.W. 1979. The breeding of vegetable crops: Highlights of the past seventy-five years. HortScience 14:359363.
Whitaker, T.W. 1980. Cucurbitaceae Americanas Utiles al Hombre. La Plata, Argent.: Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas.
Whitaker, T.W. 1981. Archeological cucurbits. Econ. Bot. 35:460466.
Whitaker, T.W. 1982. All about pumpkins, squashes and gourds. Calif. Gardener (Jan.Feb.):79.
Whitaker, T.W. 1984. A collection of wild and cultivated Cucurbitaceae from Zambia. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. l7:8990.
Whitaker, T.W. 1985. Cucumis species of interest to muskmelon breeders. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 8:85.
Whitaker, T.W. 1986. Squash, pumpkins and gourds (Cucurbita spp.). Plant Prod. Prot. Paper. FAO, Rome 76:7173.
Whitaker, T.W. 1990. Cucurbits of potential economic importance, p. 318324. In: D.M. Bates, R.W. Robinson, and C. Jeffrey (eds.). Biology and utilization of the Cucurbitaceae. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, N.Y.
Whitaker, T.W. and W.P. Bemis. 1964. Evolution in the genus Cucurbita. Evolution 18:553559.
Whitaker, T.W. and W.P. Bemis. 1964. Virus-like symptoms of Cucurbita species hybrids. Heredity 19:229236.
Whitaker, T.W. and W.P. Bemis. 1975. Origin and evolution of the cultivated Cucurbita. Bul. Torrey Bot. Club. 102:362368.
Whitaker, T.W. and W.P. Bemis. 1976. Cucurbits. Cucumis, Citrullus, Cucurbita, Lagenaria, p. 6469. In: N.W. Simmonds (ed.). Evolution of crop plants. Longman Group, London.
Whitaker, T.W. and J.B. Bird. 1949. Identification and significance of the cucurbit materials from Huaca Prieta, Peru. Amer. Mus. Novit. 1426:115.
Whitaker, T.W. and G.W. Bohn. 1950. A smear technique for the Cucurbitaceae. Stain Technol. 25:133136.
Whitaker, T.W. and G.W. Bohn. 1950. The taxonomy, genetics, production and uses of the cultivated species of Cucurbita. Econ. Bot. 4:5281.
Whitaker, T.W. and G.W. Bohn. 1952. Isolation requirements of squashes and pumpkins. Seed World 70(5):10, 53.
Whitaker, T.W. and G.W. Bohn. 1954. Mosaic reaction and geographic origin of accessions of Cucumis melo L. Plant Dis. Rptr. 38:838840.
Whitaker, T.W. and G.F. Carter. 1946. Critical notes on the origin and domestication of the cultivated species of Cucurbita. Amer. J. Bot. 33:1015.
Whitaker, T.W. and G.F. Carter. 1954. Oceanic drift of gourds: experimental observations. Amer. J. Bot. 41:697701.
Whitaker, T.W. and G.F. Carter. 1961. A note on the longevity of seed of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl. after floating in sea water. Bul. Torrey Bot. Club 88:104106.
Whitaker, T.W. and H.C. Cutler. 1965. Cucurbits and cultures in the Americas. Econ. Bot. 19:344349.
Whitaker, T.W. and H.C. Cutler. 1966. Food plants in a Mexican market. Econ. Bot. 20:616.
Whitaker, T.W. and H.C. Cutler. 1967. Pottery and Cucurbita species. Amer. Antiquity 32:225226.
Whitaker, T.W. and H.C. Cutler. 1968. Pre-historic distribution of Cucurbita L. in the AmericasUnsolved problems. 37th Congr. Inter. Amer. Actas Mem. 2:511515.
Whitaker, T.W. and H.C. Cutler. 1971. Prehistoric cucurbits from the valley of Oaxaca. Econ. Bot. 25:123127.
Whitaker, T.W. and H.C. Cutler. 1986. Cucurbits from preceramic levels at Guila Naquitz, p. 275279. In: K.V.
Flannery (ed.). Guila Naquitz: Archaic foraging and early agriculture in Oaxaca, Mexico. Academic Press, Orlando, Fa.
Whitaker, T.W. and G.N. Davis. 1962. Cucurbits. Botany, cultivation, and utilization. Interscience, New York.
Whitaker, T.W. and I.C. Jagger. 1937. Breeding and improvement of cucurbits, p. 207232. U.S. Dept. Agr. Yrbk.
Whitaker, T.W. and R.J. Knight, Jr. 1980. Collecting cultivated and wild cucurbits in Mexico. Econ. Bot. 34:312319.
Whitaker, T.W. and D.E. Pryor. 1945. The reaction of 21 species in the Cucurbitaceae to artificial infection with cantaloupe powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum D.C.). Phytopathology 35:533534.
Whitaker, T.W. and D.E. Pryor. 1946. Effect of plant growth regulators on the set of fruit from hand-pollinated flowers in Cucumis melo L. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 48:417422.
Whitaker, T.W. and R.W. Robinson. 1986. Squash breeding, p. 209242. In: M.J . Bassett (ed.). Breeding vegetable crops. Avi Publ. Co., Westport, Conn.
Whitaker, T.W., H.C. Cutler, and R.S. MacNeish. 1957. Cucurbit materials from caves near Ocampo, Tamaulipas. Amer. Antiquity 22:353358.
Wilke, P.J., T.W. Whitaker, and E. Hattori. 1977. Prehistoric squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) from the Salton Basin. J. Calif. Anthropol. 4:5459.