Vegetable Improvement Newsletter
No. 10, February 1968
Compiled by H.M. Munger, Cornell University,
Ithaca, New York
1. A Chromosomal Interchange in Cabbage
Biology Department, State University College, Cortland,
A naturally occurring case of semi-sterility was observed
in one plant of a self-fertile line derived from the Cornell
release 52-153. The semi-sterility was manifested in reduced
seed set. Microscopic examination of the pollen of this
plant revealed that approximately half of the grains were
aborted and did not stain with acetocarmine. The chromosomes
were subsequently examined by the "acetocarmine squash
method." This revealed the presence of seven pairs
of bivalents and a ring of four chromosomes at Metaphase
I of meiosis. The association of four chromosomes at Metaphase
I was considered evidence that the plant was a translocation
heterozygote. Approximately half of the progenies of this
translocation heterozygote (T/N) had normal pollen (all
stainable with acetocarmine), the other half had 50% abortive
pollen. Such a ratio fits the expectation since selfing
of a T/N plant yields 1 N/N : 2 N/T : 1 T/T progenies. The
N/N and the T/T have 100% fertile pollen.
Seed of the translocation heterozygote is available and
might be of interest to those who are engaged in linkage
2. Downy Mildew Resistance in Certain Brassicae
W.C. Barnes and W.R. Sitterley
Clemson University Truck Experiment Station, Charleston,
Resistance to downy mildew in cabbage was obtained by crossing
with two French cabbages, PI 261774 and 267769. The latter
was a semi-savoy type and transferred so little fiber to
the progeny it was discarded from the program. Very good
resistance in the heading stage has been observed in fall
and spring crops both of which mature when climatic conditions
are favorable for the pathogen. The spring crop plant beds
are seeded Oct. 1-15 thereby making them in the juvenile
stage when the fall crop is heading. In the plant bed resistant
plants show some tolerance to the pathogen but the degree
of injury is in great contrast to the high degree of resistance
in the heading stage.
This same resistance was incorporated into collards by
crossing with the PI 261774 cabbage and the juvenile stages
of this crop respond in a similar manner.
Resistance in broccoli was obtained from PI 189028. This
crop is planted in August when temperatures are too high
for the pathogen to be active. Normally the plants are old
enough to be quite resistant by the time the pathogen becomes
active. Although no real test has been conducted on juvenile
broccoli there are indications it responds in somewhat the
same manner as cabbage.
These observations lead us to conclude that downy mildew
resistance in these brassicae is definitely influenced by
age of host plant with the juvenile stage being the least
resistant. A puzzling spot frequently found on the tops
of maturing resistant heads and once thought to be caused
by downy mildew has been proven to be either a virus or
more likely a non pathogenic lesion caused by something
3. Observations Made on the Sex Expression of F-1 Hybrids
Developed By the Use of the Gynoecious Character
Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville,
Prior to the summer of 1966, the F-1 hybrid plants developed
through the use of the gynoecious character appeared to
be strongly gynoecious in the plantings at Fayetteville,
Hope and Bald Knob. Some small amount of classifying plants
on the basis of sex expression has been carried out but
as a general rule most of the plants had been classified
as gynoecious or partly gynoecious except where two way
crosses had been made. Plants of the two way cross generally
had 40 to 60 percent of the plants classified as monoecious
in contrast to the very low percentage (0-5 percent) of
monoecious types found in F-1 hybrids.
The inspection of the Bald Knob planting in June, 1966,
led the staff to give consideration to the classifying individual
plants on the basis of sex expression.
The six commercial F-1 hybrids in this trial had a fairly
large number of plants classified as monoecious, ranging
from 27.1 to 49.2 percent. The station's two way cross in
this same trial had 58.5 percent of its plants classified
as monoecious. In 1967 plants of seven F-1 commercial hybrids
were classified on the basis of sex expression in the Bald
Knob trial. Only one of these seven hybrids had been evaluated
on this basis in the 1966 trial. The percentage of plants
classified as monoecious among this group of hybrids ranged
from 7.9 to 47.2. There were three hybrids showing less
than 15 percent monoecious types and four hybrids that had
28.8 percent or higher of its plants classified as monoecious.
The data on sex expression of plantings of hybrids at Hope,
Arkansas leads the staff to consider toe effect of plant
crowding on sex expression. In replications 1,2, and 3 of
the Pioneer F-1 hybrid in the variety trial, gave this percentage
of monoecious types: 10.0, 22.2, and 0, respectively. Plants
of the fourth replication where the hills were not thinned
and contained as many as 4-5 plants per hill were all classified
as monoecious. The crowding or shading effect may be responsible
for this high production of male flowers and might point
to light intensity as a factor influencing sex expression
as shown by E. Kooistra (1) in the Netherlands.
(1) E. Kooistra. 1967. Femaleness in Breeding Glasshouse
Cucumbers. Euphytica Vol. 16: 1-17.
4. A Rapid Test For Scab Resistance in Cucumber
H.M. Hunger and R.E. Wilkinson
Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
In conventional testing for scab resistance, cucumber seedlings
are grown in flats, inoculated by spraying with a spore
suspension when cotyledons are fully expanded, and kept
in a moist chamber at 65-70° for 5-7 days. It usually
takes nearly 3 weeks to complete such a test, and it is
difficult to test more than 50 seedlings in a 12x16 inch
We have found that seedlings germinated in paper towels
can be used for a quicker test and one that requires only
a small fraction as much space as the conventional method.
A doubled paper towel (5" x 10") is moistened
and seeds are placed in a row, hilum down, about 1/2 inch
from the top along the 10 inch edge. Another moistened paper
towel is placed over the first to hold the seeds in place,
and a pot label inserted for identification. The towel is
then rolled loosely and placed upright in a container about
5 inches deep with a trace of water in the bottom. If held
at approximately 90° F, most seed lots germinate and
develop hypocotyls about an inch long in 3 days. At this
time they are ready for inoculation, which is done by exposing
the entire seedlings and spraying them with spore suspension
of the scab-inciting organism, Cladosporium cucumerinum.
The towels are then re-rolled and placed in their container
in a moist chamber held at 65-70° F. Readings can usually
be made on the fourth day following inoculation, although
the differences may be sharper on the fifth day. Hypocotyls
of susceptible seedlings become gray, soft, and watersoaked
in appearance while resistant seedlings remain greenish
white and turgid.
Resistant seedlings can be transferred to flats or pots
without any problem of survival. There appears to be some
superficial mycelial growth on the cotyledons of resistant
seedlings while in the moist chamber, but this disappears
quickly after transplanting.
In addition to the saving of space and time, this technique
has two other advantages. (1) It eliminates damping-off
which sometimes causes problems when seedlings growing in
soil are held under cool, moist conditions for several days.
(2) Counts of resistant susceptible seedlings can be made
considerably faster and more accurately where each lot consists
of small seedlings exposed on a separate towel than where
they are growing in flats.
5. Gibberellin A4-A7 for Staminate
Flower Induction on Gynoecious Cucumbers
L.M. Pike and C.E. Peterson
Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan
A new formulation of gibberellin (A4A7)1
was compared with potassium gibberellate (KGA) on gynoecious
cucumber line MSU35G in greenhouse and field trials in 1967.
The latter formulation was selected on the basis of a 1966
field experiment in which KGA at 1000 ppm produced satisfactory
induction compared with virtually no response from butoxyethyl
Extreme vegetative response, observed in the greenhouse
plants treated with A4A7 at concentrations
of 100 ppm or more, indicated clearly that such plants could
not withstand the rigors of the outdoor environment. Since
the minimum (100 ppm) concentration used in the greenhouse
was found to cause injury, our field treatments were at
concentrations 25, 50 and 100 ppm of the A4A7
and 250, 500 and 1000 ppm of KGA with one, two and three
applications of each dilution.
Satisfactory induction was secured in the field with three
applications of 25 ppm of A4A7 beginning
when the first true leaf had expanded to 1 inch diameter
with the second and third applications at 4 day intervals.
At 50 ppm induction with A4A7 was
significantly better than with 1000 ppm of KGA. Excessive
vegetative response and some damage resulted from 100 ppm
of A4A7 .
From our experience with this material we have concluded
that the total quantity of gibberellin absorbed per unit
of plant weight or volume is more important than the dilution
at which it is applied. It is easy to get an overdose on
small plants even at low concentrations, if the plants are
treated too frequently or if normal growth is checked by
environmental stress. If plants have not produced new leaves
or if excessive damage from previous treatments is evident,
additional applications should be delayed until plants show
normal growth. Severe damage and high mortality have been
observed with both KGA at 1000 ppm and A4A7
at 50 ppm under conditions of extreme heat and drying winds.
Until precise procedures are worked out for A4A7,
it is suggested that one-half of the plants to be treated
should receive 25 ppm and the other half 50 ppm when the
first true leaf is expanded to about one inch. The two or
three subsequent applications at 50 ppm may be at approximately
weekly intervals depending upon growth of plants and severity
of vegetative response from preceding treatments.
We have good results with a volume of approximately 2 ml
per plant applied to the growing point and 1 or 2 expanded
terminal leaves each time the plants are treated. On rapidly-growing
seedling plants in the greenhouse, good induction with no
injury has been secured following a schedule of 3 treatments
at 4-5 day intervals using A4A7 at
a dilution of 25 ppm and an approximate volume of 2 ml per
application directed to growing tip and the last expanded
1 Supplied by AMDAL Company, Division of Abbott
Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois.
6. Cucumber Beetle-Resistant Cucurbits
U.S. Vegetable Breeding Laboratory, Crops Research Division,
Vegetable Insects Investigations, Entomology Research
Division, Charleston, S.C.
We have found a number of commercially available varieties
and plant introduction of squash, muskmelon, and watermelon
(cucumbers were omitted in this test to be highly resistant
to the banded cucumber beetle ( Diabrotica balteata).
Preliminary observations and reports in the literature indicate
that they may be resistant to the spotted (D. undecimpunctata
howardi) and striped (Acalymma vittatum) cucumber
beetles as well. Our screening technique consisted of planting
seeds in flats of soil in a greenhouse section where they
were continually exposed to a high population of insects
while germinating and emerging. using mass-reared insects
in numbers greatly exceeding the natural population allowed
us to apply considerable selection pressure and obtain a
high level of resistance.
The following list of cucumber beetle-resistant varieties
and plant introductions maybe useful to breeders interested
in including resistance as part of their breeding program:
- Cucurbita pepo ( 42 varieties and 307 PIs screened
- Resistance found: Early Summer Crookneck, Scallop
(Benning's Green, Small Blossom Scar, Early White,
Golden Bush) , Early Prolific Improved Straightneck,
Clemson University Truck Experiment Station breeding
line 64-2-3-10-3, and PI's 216032, 230181, 267660,
- C. maxima (17 varieties and 189 PI's screened)
- Resistance found: PI's 165558, 1628990, 296483-B
- C. moschata ( 5 varieties and 1 PI screened)
- Resistance found : Kentucky Field, Butternut, PI
- C. mixta (2 varieties and 1 PI screened)
- Resistance found : White Cushaw, PI G-6170.
- Cucumis melon ( 89 varieties and 1,331 PI's
- Resistance found: Allnet Mildew Resistant, Burrells'
Superfecto, Eden Gem (Rocky Ford Green Flesh), Florida
84, Golden Gate, Hale's Best, Healy's Pride, Perfected,
Perfecto, Perliate, Pollock 10-25, Rio Gold 65, Sierra
Gold, PI's 127524, 134200, 136198, 136225, 149168,
163219, 164330, 164331, 164343, 164720, 164750, 175109,
18297, 1833055, 210541, 210542, 211933, 212895, 223772,
249560, 271335, 295341, 302446.
- Citrullus lanatus ( 96 varieties and 400 PI's
- Resistance found: only the variety Sugar Loaf.
Cucurbita maxima is the only major species in
which we did not find a varietal source of resistance, although
we did find 3 resistant PI's in that species.
Although resistance is commonplace in Cucumis melon, a
number of varieties were highly susceptible; Honey Dew,
Honey Dew Baby Slip, Persian (medium), Casaba (Sungold,
Cranshaw, Golden Beauty), Smith's Perfect, Florida Honey
Dew #1, and Florida (4-4).
Watermelons are reputed to suffer the most damage from
cucumber beetles of any cucurbit species. To our knowledge
no previous report of the resistance of Sugar Loaf has been
made. It has a much higher degree of resistance than any
of the varieties we tested that are reported to have a degree
7. A Chlorophyll-Deficient Mutant in Lettuce
Crops Research Division, Agriculture Research Service,
U.S. Department of Agriculture, la Jolla, California
Several chlorophyll-deficient mutants have been described
in lettuce, most of them were cytoplasmic in origin and
maternally inherited (Whitaker, Jour. Hered. 5:317-320,
1944). Ryder (Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 86:457-461, 1965)
has found a single mutant Cut leaf in irradiated
material. this mutant has light green cotyledons and light
green leaves, but later the leaves and cotyledons become
During routine progeny tests for resistance to lettuce
downy mildew ( Bremia lactucae), we found a progeny (segregating
for resistance which had several seedlings with light green
cotyledons. Leaves of these seedlings develop some dark
green pigment, but they also develop large white areas apparently
without chlorophyll. Nearly all of the mature leaves of
the mutant have these large patches devoid of pigment, which
give the plants an odd, calico appearance. The distinctive
light green cotyledons make this mutant easy to score in
the seedling stage. The chlorophyll-deficient plants produce
a modest amount of seed, although the quantity is greatly
reduced compared to normal green plants (6.42 g vs. 29.71
g per plant).
This progeny (52435) in the 7th generation of selection,
was derived from crosses involving Imp. 615, Climax, and
a downy mildew resistant line. Our tests indicate that this
chlorophyll-deficient condition is dependent upon a single
recessive gene for expression.
A comparative analysis of the quantity and quality of chlorophyll
from deficient plants and their normal green siblings indicates
that the deficient plant have only 13 percent as much total
chlorophyll as normal green plants. The ratio of chlorophyll
as to chlorophyll b, however, is the same in both mutant
and normal green plants.
This chlorophyll-deficient mutant should be of value in
linkage studies. Small samples of seed of this mutant are
available to lettuce breeders, and can be obtained from
the U.S. Horticultural Field Station, La Jolla, California
92037. the chlorophyll determinations were made through
the courtesy of Professor F.T. Haxo, Scripps Institution
of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego Campus.
8. Pseudo-cleistogamy in the Muskmelon Cucumis Melo
Crops Research Division, Agriculture Research Service,
U.S. Department of Agriculture, la Jolla, California
Renewed interest in Enzie's (ASHS 43:195. 1943) cucumber
mosaic resistant "Oriental Pickling Melon" stems
from its resistance to races 1 and 2 of Fusarium oxysporum
f. melonis (Leach & Curr) Sn. & H., reported
by Risser and Mas (Ann. Amelior. Plantes 15:405. 1965).
Accordingly, seeds derived from the naturally pollinated
L.J. 17187 ( = Risser and Mas' CM 17187) and of its strictly
inbred sib, L.J. 34205, were grown in the greenhouses at
La Jolla for seed increase by bulk crossing S2
and S3 sib lines.
Flowers were not tied to prevent corolla expansion because:
(1) bees rarely penetrated the screened greenhouses and
(2) pistillate (perfect) flower buds were emasculated and
pollinated the day before anthesis. Pistillate flowers left
untreated usually dropped. Natural setting of fruits from
untreated flowers usually indicated imperfect exclusion
Surprisingly, S3 progenies L.J. 35188 and 35190,
from "Enzie's Conomon" plant 10, and O.S. progenies
L.J. 90321 and 90322, from "Enzie Conomon" plant
1, set fruits repeatedly from untreated flowers. Such fruits
competed successfully with fruits set from sib-line pollinations.
They were about as large as hand-pollinated fruits at maturity;
and they contained some plump seeds. Subsequent observations
supported the belief that these plants set fruits in the
absence of honeybees or other pollinators.
The hypothesis was tested on a small scale by tying corollas
of 5 flowers on 2 plants of L.J. 17187 inbreds and 10 flowers
on 3 plants of L.J. 34205 inbreds. Fruits set from hand
pollinated flowers and from untreated flowers on those plants
and their sibs served as controls.
Despite their derivation from sibs that appeared nearly
alike in the 1947 planting, the 2 populations yielded different
results. Fruits set from flowers of 17187 inbreds that were
tied the day before anthesis and left undisturbed until
harvest contained as many plump-seeds as did fruits from
selfed, cross-pollinated, or undisturbed flowers (Table1).
Tied flowers of 34205 inbreds set fruits readily, but the
fruits contained no plump seeds. Instead, they contained
apparently empty "seed coats" nearly as large
as plump seeds.
These observations suggest that the population derived
from 17187 was pseudocleistogamous and self-fertile; while
the related population derived from 34205 was either parthenocarpic
or pseudocleistogamous and self-sterile. The enlargement
of 34205 plants set seedy fruits from self-pollinated flowers,
so they were obviously self-fertile. The fruits were thus
Additional study will be required to determine the mechanism
operating to yield seedless and seeded fruits from open
and tied flowers of these populations. Parthenocarpy is
well known in Cucumis sativus L. and it has been
observed in other cucurbits. however, I know of no reports
of cleistogamy or pseudo-cleistogamy in the Cucurbitaceae.
Table 1. Average number of plump seeds in Enzie's C.
melo var. conomon fruits set from flowers
treated in different ways. La Jolla, California. 1967.
9. A Red Stem Pigment Muskmelon
Crops Research Division, Agriculture Research Service,
U.S. Department of Agriculture, la Jolla, California
We observed a red pigment in the stems of Cucumis melo
L. P.I. 157083 seedlings grown in the greenhouse at
La Jolla in 1961. The pigment first showed in vascular traces
to cotyledons in hypocotyls of 30-day-old plants. Subsequently,
red pigment developed in irregular patches just under the
epidermis of stems, especially at nodes. The pigment did
not persist in one location; it developed in young-maturing
stem tissues below the elongation region, and usually disappeared
as the section of stem aged. The pigment was not observed
in field-grown plants. So far as we are aware, this is the
first record of a red pigment in stem or leaf tissue of
any cucurbit. K.S. Chester quoted N.I. Vavilov, in Chronica
Botanica 13:1/6, 1951: "Despite an extended search
among thousands of varieties of watermelon, muskmelon, squash,
and gourds, we have not once found forms with anthocyanin
in the stems or roots."
The red-stemmed introduction, a small-fruited feral or
semi-feral muskmelon collected by H.L. Crane in Lanchow,
China, was crossed with a standard green-stemmed cantaloupe.
Two small F2 progenies, totaling 94 plants, segregated
68 green- and 26 red-stemmed plants. Thus the red stem character
was dependent on a single, recessive gene (Chi square, 0.35).
The gene for red stem is symbolized r. The population
was segregating, also, for resistance to powdery mildew,
Pm2, from the green-stemmed parent (Bohn
and Whitaker, Phytopath. 54:587. 1964). The coupling phase
dihybrid classes in F2 were 56 Pm2R:
20 Pm2r: 12 pm2R:
6 pm2r. The numbers approximated
those expected with independent assortment (Linkage Chi
Dr. Randolph Wedding, University of California at Riverside,
observed that the pigment was located in the walls of thick-walled
cells, probably bast fibers. Such cells formed the outer
layer of vascular bundles and occurred as islands within
the bundles. The pigment disappeared in acid, neutral, or
alkaline alcohol. Dr. Wedding stated that the pigment was
not an anthocyanin, because it was not located in the cell
vacuole, and it was not directly soluble in (but reacted
Subsequently, Dr. F.P. Zscheille, Jr., of the University
of California at Davis, confirmed Dr. Wedding's observations.
He found the pigment soluble in water and in acetone. From
absorption spectra of acetone-hexane extracted material,
Dr. Zscheile concluded that the pigment was not a carotenoid.
From its occurrence in thick-walled cells in young-maturing
stems and its disappearance in aged stems, Dr. T.A. Geissman,
of the University of California at Los Angeles, suggested
that the red pigment may be a precursor to lignin.
Red stem is easily scored in greenhouse cultures, and serves
as a genetic marker for seedlings in linkage studies. Linkage
studies with other seedling and young plant markers are
Small samples of seed are available from the U.S. Horticultural
Field Station, La Jolla, California 92037.
10. A White Flower Cantaloupe
U.S. Vegetable Breeding Laboratory, Charleston, S.C.
This mutant appeared first in April 1967 in a greenhouse
planting of 7 selfed lines from a selfed parent line, which
was a culmination of 15 generations of mixed mass selection
in isolation and enforced sib-crossing. Three of the 7 selfed
sister lines segregated a portion of seedlings having a
Chlorina pattern of mixed yellow and green. The
yellow-green segregants from the populations were bulked
to form the foundation stock (C879) which is offered to
other breeders for experimental use.
The first generation of C879 in the field had vine vigor
comparable to the normal green sister lines. All C879 plants
developed flowers with off-white or very pale green petals
and bright orange stigmatic surfaces. Few fruit were set
on these vines, either by hand or by open pollination. This
greenhouse crop revealed that effects of the color mutation
extended also to the stems, which had a notably pale green
Flowers again were near white and slightly reduced in size
in comparison with the normal sister lines. There seemed
to be no scarcity of pollen or of pollen vitality. The percentage
of fruit set by hand-pollination was about equal to that
on normal plants. However, after the initial flowering period
the greenhouse grown plants went into a phase during which
no flowers developed. No explanation for this occurs to
us at the moment.
We have completed no genetic studies on this mutant, nor
have we determined the full range of its pleiotropic effects.
A few seed are available to cooperators who wish to make
further studies. The stock (C879) has the potential of a
useful genetic marker which can be detected in the seedling
stage and in all subsequent stages of plant and fruit development.
A study of light requirements could lead to improvement
of seedling survival and of flower development.
Other yellow-green mutants are known in Cucumis melo,
but none that are associated with white flower and yellow
11. A Male-Sterile Pea Line
Ziraat Fakultesi, Ege Universitesi, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey
During the summer of 1965 two individual plant selection
lines of the G113 pea cultivar contained plants which failed
to produce pods. Examination showed that flowers of these
plants were normal except that the anthers contained only
shriveled pollen. No normal pollen grains were seen in any
anthers examined microscopically. The male-sterile plants
remained green long after other plants of this line had
matured and turned yellow.
Several crosses were made by pollinating sterile plants
with pollen from neighboring plants from the same line.
Almost all produced pods with as much seed as is usually
obtained when normal plants are emasculated and artificially
crossed. It was hoped that at least one of the pollen parents
might be heterozygous for male-sterility, but the F1
plants grown in the greenhouse during the winter of
1965-66 were all normal.
A small planting of F3 seed grown in the greenhouse
during the winter of 1966-67 produced 6 male-sterile and
27 normal plants. As was true in the field planting, the
only abnormality of the sterile plants was shriveled pollen.
12. 'Sweet Goldilocks' Sweet Corn
Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Massachusetts,
'Sweet Goldilocks', a yellow hybrid sweet corn, has been
tested in our experimental plots for the past three years.
It appears to have merit as an especially fine quality variety
and suited for growing in the home garden or for selling
at the roadside stand. Its medium sized ears are very attractive
and mature two to three days before those of 'Tastyvee'
and 'Butter and Sugar'. The twelve-rowed ears from 'Sweet
Goldilocks' are slightly smaller than from the varieties
mentioned previously but produce more ears per plant and
out-yield them by an average of 8.6 and 21.0 per cent in
total weight respectively.
The outstanding feature of this new hybrid is the extreme
tenderness of its pericarp, its excellent flavor; the kernels
tend to remain at peak quality a significantly longer period
than with most other varieties of current importance.
The pedigree released here for the first time is as follows:
Seed parent - Ma 21547-1-P
Pollinator - Vineland 576
The parent lines are of similar maturity range and it appears
that pollination will be complete in the seed production
field when they are planted simultaneously.
Seed has not been produced in quantity but a limited number
of trial samples are available upon request.
(Research has been supported by NE-32 Regional funds.)
13. An Effective and Efficient Method for Making Artificial
Cross-Pollinations of Tomato
F.F. Angell and M.L. Robbins
Department of Horticulture, University of Maryland
The main steps in making artificial cross-pollinations
of tomato are emasculating seed parent flower, pollen collection,
and pollen application. The present methods for performing
the latter two steps are tedious and often wasteful of scarce
pollen. Presented in this note is a description of an improved
method for collecting and applying tomato pollen.
Pollen is collected directly into No. 4 gelatin capsules.
The anther cone of open flower is partly inserted into the
small section of a capsule and the flower is then vibrated.
The two sections of a capsule are then brought together
to provide a closed container. The capsules containing pollen
are placed into small holes in a piece of styrofoam. The
styrofoam serves as a convenient container for storing capsules
in refrigeration and while making pollinations in the greenhouse
Gelatin capsules will soften and collapse if they come
in contact with moisture so efforts must be made to keep
them dry at all times. We have lost very few capsules because
of this moisture problem. Glass vials would be superior
to gelatin capsules; however, we have not been able to find
vials of suitable size.
Pollen is applied by carefully dipping the stigma of an
emasculated flower into pollen in a capsule. The stigma
is gently shaken to remove excess pollen before it is withdrawn
from the capsule. The stigma is gently shaken to remove
excess pollen before it is withdrawn from the capsule. Pollen
from one or two flowers is usually sufficient for many pollinations.
Pollen in capsules is stored under refrigeration to maintain
viability during the interval between pollinations. The
length of time pollen will remain viable under those storage
conditions has not been determined. Successful results have
been obtained with pollen stored 21 days. Generally, the
pollen is used within a 10-14 day period.
The method of collecting and applying pollen described
in this note has been used successfully in the breeding
and genetics program at Maryland. The main advantages of
this method as compared with conventional methods are as
follows: faster, less time required per pollination; less
tedious for individual making pollinations; less chance
for contamination during pollination process; conserves
pollen, small amount of pollen will pollinate many flowers;
effective, generally the percentage of fruit set is increased.
14. Defuzzed Tomato Seed
Carl H. Cadregari
Joseph Harris Company, Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester,
The Joseph Harris Company will make available to research
workers interested in direct field and flat seeding of tomatoes,
suitable quantities of defuzzed New Yorker and Fireball
Please address inquiries to the author.
15. A Single Gene With Several Desirable Effects for Mechanical
Harvesting of Tomatoes
R.W. Robinson and Henryk Wilczynski
New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva,
None of the tomato varieties included in mechanical harvesting
tests at Geneva, New York last season was entirely satisfactory.
Varieties used for mechanical harvesting in California were
too late and susceptible to cracking, while varieties adapted
to New York growing conditions dropped their fruit too easily.
Breeding lines with the best resistance to "shattering"
(premature fruit drop) were those having a jointless gene,
such as Jointless Fireball which was developed by H.M. Munger
by a backcross program with j-1.
Jointless lines included in this test, however, had poor
concentration of maturity. Thus, Geneva breeding line 903
attracted attention because it had good concentration of
maturity as well as resistance to shattering. Line 903 is
not jointless but has an abscission layer of the type tomato
breeders are calling "arthritic joint", which
increases the force required to separate the fruit from
the vine at the joint.
Line 903 has less apical dominance than normal. Consequently
many lateral branches develop rapidly and uniformly, resulting
in a compact, bushy plant with many fruit ripe at the same
Inheritance studies with line 903 are underway now, and
it is evident that the "arthritic joint" and "profuse
branching" characters are associated in segregating
generations. Preliminary results indicate that both characters
are governed by the same incompletely dominant gene. Further
research is in progress to provide more definitive inheritance
data, test for allelism at previously established loci,
and investigate the influence of this gene on auxin physiology.
Line 903 is under consideration for possible release later
this year, and seed is available for trials. It is also
being offered to make tomato breeders as parental material
since it appears promising that it has a single gene providing
several desirable traits, including compact plant habit
with good foliage cover, resistance to shattering, concentrated
maturity, and a high proportion of stem-free fruit when
16. Release of Maritimer Tomato
New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva,
Maritimer is closely related and similar to New Yorker,
but differs in a single recessive gene for apple-green immature
fruit color. Fruit is larger but later and more susceptible
to cracking than New Yorker. It is resistant to Verticillium
wilt and late blight (race 0). The darker green fruit of
Maritimer has proven advantageous to growers in the Maritimes
who process green tomatoes, but Maritimer appears less suitable
for fresh market and processing of ripe fruit than New Yorker.
17. Observations on Low Temperature Fruit and Seed Set
Paul G. Smith and Archie H. Millett
Department of Vegetable Crops, University of California,
In the Northeastern Regional Plant Introduction Station's
annual report for 1967 (dated December 14, 1967), a tomato
from the USSR, PI 280597, was reported to be capable of
shedding pollen at 50°F. We wish to confirm this and
to add a few observations on low temperature setting.
During the spring of 1967, four plants each of a number
of tomato varieties and breeding lines were planted in 4-gallon
containers and grown to first flowering in a greenhouse.
All flower buds were then removed and the plants placed
in an air-conditioned greenhouse with the temperature set
at 45°F for 14 hours during the night and at 68°F
for 10 hours during the daylight. Flowers as they developed
were vibrated daily to ensure pollination. The plants were
kept in the greenhouse from March 15 to May 5, when they
were removed to a regular greenhouse to allow more rapid
fruit development. On June 9 all fruit were removed, cut
crosswise, and the seed set estimated, using a three-class
scale: 5 = good; 3 = fair; and 1 = very few or no seeds.
No statistical analysis was attempted. The results, omitting
University of California breeding lines, are noted below.
No. fruits sampled
Av. No. fruits/plant
It is clear that fruit set and seed set are not necessarily
related and that fruit set alone is not a safe criterion
for low temperature setting ability. Seed set should be
measured as well as the ability to set fruit. Pollen production
was not measured, although stainable pollen was produced
by all varieties. In agreement with the observation on PI
280597 noted above, this line produced pollen freely, whereas
pollen production was fair to poor with the remaining varieties.
That PI 280597 not only produced pollen freely, but also
had a good set of fruit with seeds, should make it valuable
in the development of low-temperature setting varieties.
Some variations in plant growth were evident. All grew
slowly and were pale green, with some purpling. Two breeding
lines had begun to die by the time the plants were removed.
Several lines, near the end of the cold treatment, began
to produce small flower clusters from the dorsal surface
of the midribs of the older leaves.
Studies are now under way to measure pollen production
more precisely in several varieties, including PI 280597,
and to observe the morphological changes that occur with
the development of the anthers and the release of pollen
under these temperatures.
18. Uncatalogued Vegetable Varieties Available for Trial
This list is aimed at facilitating the exchange
of information about potential new varieties, or new varieties
which have not yet appeared in catalogues. Persons conducting
vegetable variety trials who wish seed of items on this
list should request samples from the sources indicated.
It is the responsibility of the person sending
out seed to specify that it is for trial only, or any other
restriction he may want to place on its use.
Crops are listed alphabetically. For each
entry the following information is given: Designation, source
of trial samples, outstanding characteristics, variety suggested
for comparison (not given separately if mentioned in description),
status of variety (preliminary trial, advanced trial, to
be released, or released) and contributor of information
if different from source of trial samples. Where several
samples are listed consecutively from on source, the address
is given only for the first.
- Hi-Red. E.P. Brasher, Dept. of Horticulture, University
of Delaware, Newark 19711. High pigment content. Hi-Red
contained 61% more crude betanin than the average
of the other 21 varieties in a 1966 trial conducted
by the Campbell Soup Company. Compare with Detroit
Dark Red. To be released.
- Market Dawn (Hybrid). E.W. Scott, Joseph Harris
Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Early
market cabbage - good bluegreen color, round shape,
yellows resistant. Compare with C.C. Cross and Golden
Acre. Released. Contributed by Robert Wilkins.
- LH 105 (Hy.#E). E.W. Scott. Very late, slow-growing
small headed storage cabbage. Bluegreen color, yellows
resistant. To be released. (R. Wilkins).
- Karrette (hybrid). E.W. Scott.Very short stump rooted
variety for whole pack canner or baby carrot bagged
fresh. Preliminary trial. Contributed by Carl Cadregari.
- H21SN (hybrid). E.W. Scott. Medium long market carrot-
good color, smoothness and uniformity. Possible use
for slicer- it stumps off. ( C. Cadregari).
- E N 47 ( hybrid). E.W. Scott. Long market carrot
with hybrid vigor and uniformity. Good color and smoothness.
Possible use for slicer- it stumps off. Compare with
Gold Pak, Imperator 58. Advanced trial. (C. Cadregari).
- MSU 7707. C.E. Peterson, Dept. of Horticulture,
Michigan State University, East Lansing 48823. Uniform,
good color, high quality. Should also be evaluated
fro potential processing value in sliced pack. Compare
with Imperator. To be released.
- MSU 7760. C.E. Peterson. Uniform, good color, high
quality- in diced or baby food pack. Compare with
Danvers 126. Advanced trial.
- 65-8. H.M Munger, Dept. of plant Breeding, Cornell
University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14850. Resistant to chlorosis
and pithiness, more uniform maturity than Utah 52-70
from which it was derived by selection. Advanced trial.
- SC 25. W.C. Barnes, Box 3158, Charleston, S.C. 29407.
Pickling type. Resistant to Downy and Powdery mildew,
anthracnose, angular leaf spot, CMV; small seed cavity.
Compare with Pixie, Southern Cross. To be released.
Proposed name 'Chipper'.
- Ark. Hy. 206. J. L. Bowers Dept. of Horticulture,
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 72701. Outstanding
characteristics- earliness and productive and resistant
to anthracnose race 1. Compare with Pixie. Preliminary
- MSU 6515-1. C.E. Peterson, Dept. of Horticulture,
Michigan State University, East Lansing 48823. Early,
uniform heavy set- for mechanical harvest. Compare
with Piccadilly. To be released.
- MSU 6515-3. C.E. Peterson. Early, uniform heavy-set
for mechanical harvest. Compare with Piccadilly. To
- MSU 6902 G. C.E. Peterson. Mostly gynoecious or
P.F. Parthenocarpic-Long European type for greenhouse
productive only. Still segregating for sex expression.
Stock seed to be released will be same type but all
gynoecious. Greenhouse tests only. Compare with European
parthenocarpic greenhouse varieties. To be released.
- C4ND. E. Wilbur Scott, Joseph Harris Co., Inc.,
Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Hybrid with heavy
early yield. White spined, gynoecious-mechanical harvests.
Compare with SMR 18, SMR 58, Crusader. Advanced trial.
Seed not available until March 15. (Information contributed
by Dick Lower).
- Bravo. Paul Thomas, Peto Seed Co., Inc., P.O. Box
4206, Saticoy, California 93003. Scab resistant, white
spine pickle type cucumber. Tolerance to mosaic, downy
mildew. Strong vigorous vine, gynoecious hybrid, good
production. Compare with Southern Cross Pickle. To
- Spartan Lakes. C. E. Peterson, Dept. of Horticulture,
Michigan State University, East Lansing 48823. Bolting
resistance, green color, heavy ribs . Compare with
Minetto, Fulton. To be released. ( Information contributed
by D. Markarian).
- Gulfstream. C.F. Andrus, U.S. Vegetable Breeding
Laboratory, P.O. Box 3348, Charleston, S.C. 29407.
Productivity and mildew resistance. Adapted to humid
climate. A 2 1/2 lb. spherical melon, mostly free
of musk odor. Compare with Edisto. Released, 1967.
- 86- 94-5. Paul Thomas, Peto Seed Co., Inc., P.O.
Box 4206, Saticoy, California 93003. Concentrated
set, uniform fruit shape and size. Strongly resistant
to powdery mildew. Western shipper type. Compare with
Imp. 45. Advanced trial.
- MSU 7709. C.E. Peterson, Dept. of Horticulture,
Michigan State University, east Lansing 48823. Late,
high yield, high ring count, light interior color,
good storage quality. Firmness comparable to Abundance
and Empire. Should be evaluated as processing variety
for french fried rings and frozen diced. Preliminary
- MSU 7735. C.E. Peterson. Late, firm, very good storage
quality, low ring count, poor interior color. Should
be evaluated for very long storage with and without
MH sprout inhibitor treatment and checked in May or
June for acceptability as export onion or for soup
processors. Compare with Downing Yellow Globe. Preliminary
- P-67-160. Paul Prasher, Dept. of Horticulture, South
Dakota State University, Brookings, S.D. 57006. Small
plant, good foliage, very early. Large fruit and heavy
producer, turn yellow and maturity. Compare with any
early variety. Advanced trial.
- P-67-174. Paul Prashar. Early, large red fruit.
Plant medium and heavy producer. Ability to set fruit
at low temperature. Compare with any early variety.
- Southern Pea (Cowpea)
- Mekan. J.L. Bowers Dept. of Horticulture, University
of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. 72701. Concentrated
pod set on bush type plant. Wholeness of shelled peas
in the processed form. compare with Princess Anne
Blackeye. Has been released. Also have Ark. #208 for
advanced trials. Plants are more dwarf than those
- St. Patrick Scallop (F1 ). Robert C.
Tang, Dessert Seed Company. P.O. Box 181, El Centro,
California 92243. Bush scallop type, young fruit has
very good green color, prolific, early, good vigor.
1968 All-American winner. Compare with Benning Green
Tint Scallop. To be released. Very limited amount
- 67-113. H.M. Munger, Dept. of Plant Breeding, Cornell
Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. 14850. A bush Table Queen with
smaller fruit of good quality. Preliminary trial.
- Waltham Butternut. Robert E. Young, Waltham Field
Station, Waltham, Mass. 02154. Does not produce crooked
squash or dimorphic plants. Has improved yields, uniformity
and storage. Compare with Regular Butternut. To be
- Sweet Corn
- Polarvee. E.A. Kerr, H.R.I.O., Vineland Station,
Ontario, Canada. Very early, one month ahead of Spancross
in Alaska, 5 day ahead at Vineland. 12 row, acceptable
quality. To be released.
- Exp. 3713. J.A. Matheson, Agway Inc. Vegetable Seed
Farm, P.O. Box 336, Prospect, Pa. 16052. White silk,
Iochief type ear in Golden Beauty season. Advanced
- Gold Cup S. E. Wilbur Scott, Joseph Harris Co.,
Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Gold Cup
made with sterile seed parent and restorer pollen
parent. Advanced trial.
- Gold Winner. E.Wilbur Scott. main season market
corn with better husk appearance and flag. 81 days.
Compare with Gold cup. To be released.
- Exp. Hy. 84. E. Wilbur Scott. Main season market
corn 4 days later than Gold cup. Advanced trial.
- Ind. 66-243-1. R.J. Barman, Dept. of Horticulture,
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Dwarf,
prolific, fruit egg shaped, with ability to set under
adverse conditions. Because of the dwarf vine fruits
are held off the ground for a longer time; requires
high populations. Advanced trial.
- Ind. 65-246 bu. R.J. Barman. Dwarf, prolific, fruit
shape like Roma, with ability to set under adverse
conditions. Because of the dwarf vine fruits are held
off the ground for a longer time; requires high populations.
- Ind. 66-30-1. R.J. Barman. Determinate, concentrated
set, machine harvestable, round fruit, medium early.
Comparatively good quality following mechanical harvesting.
Compare with 1350. Advanced trial.
- 11-67. L.C. Peirce, Dept. of Plant Science, University
of New Hampshire. Durham, N.H. 03824. Large fruit,
heavy set, fairly uniform size, compact. Not resistant
to verticillium, has some blossom-end scar. Compare
with Fireball or Starfire. Advanced trial.
- No.22. Paul Prashar, Dept. of Horticulture, S.D.
State University, Brookings, South Dakota 7006. Early,
medium to large fruit, crack resistance to fusarium
and verticillium. Suitable for either staked or unstaked.
Mainly for the home gardener or for fresh market.
not recommended for mechanical harvest. Compare with
Moreton Hybrid, Fantastic, Superman. To be released
- 67-Y-324. Palul Prashar. Determinate, white shoulder.
Medium to large fruit. mid-season and very productive.
Compare with Heinz line. Advanced trial.
- Hybrids MP, MW, LP, and LW. H.M Munger and R.E.
Wilkinson, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14850.
TMV resistant (heterozygous Tm2), large red fruit,
adapted to greenhouse production. Hybrids of Manapal
and Floralou times Potentate and Waltham Moldproof
Forcing, the latter 2 varieties with Tm2. Advanced
- 903. R.W. Robinson; Vegetable Crops Dept., N.Y.
State Agriculture Experiment Station, Geneva, N.Y.
14456. Adapted to mechanical harvesting. Verticillium
resistant. Compact plant with good foliage cover;
determinate, uniform ripening. Concentrated maturity,
resistant to shattering when harvested mechanically.
- 6515. Paul Thomas, Peto Seed Co., Inc. P.O. Box
4206, Saticoy, California 93003. Medium season, Indeterminate,
resistant to verticillium, Fusarium, and root knot
nematode. Compare with Manapal. Advanced trial.
- 6428. Paul Thomas. Indeterminate, mid-season, resistant
to Verticillium and fusarium wilts, root knot nematode.
Compare with Indian River. Advanced trial.
- 6427. Paul Thomas. Medium early, indeterminate,
resistant to verticillium and fusarium wilts, root
knot nematode. Compare with Indian River. Advanced
- Terrific. Paul Thomas. Resistant to Verticillium
and fusarium wilts, nematode. Medium early indeterminate,
strong vigorous vine. Compare with Fantastic, Moreton
Hybrid. To be released.
- Parker. R.E. Webb, Crops Research Division, USDA,
Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Maryland 20705.
Early, small pear type, resistant to verticillium
and fusarium wilts. Compare with Harvester or Roma.
To be released.
- V 671. E.A. Kerr, Horticultural Research Institute
of Ontario, Vineland Station. Ontario, Canada. Salad
type, very early, smooth, firm, productive, compact
plant. Preliminary trial.
- V 672. E.A. Kerr. Salad type, similar to v 671 but
easier stemming. Preliminary trial.
- V 673. E.A. Kerr. Salad type, similar to V 671 but
firmer, more crack resistant, slightly later, better
color and flavor. Preliminary trial.
- V 681. E.A. Kerr. Similar to Fireball, but firmer,
smoother and better flavor. Preliminary trial.
- V 682. E.A. Kerr. Medium size, round, very good
crack resistance, firmness and color. Compare with
Campbell 1327. Preliminary trial.
- V 684. E.A. Kerr. Small, firm, crack resistant,
egg-shaped, mechanical harvest. Compare with Campbell
1327. Preliminary trial.
- V 686. E.A. Kerr. Medium size, round with board
nipple, fairly firm, excellent internal quality. Very
promising on market gardner's trials. Probably susceptible
to both Fusarium and Verticillium wilts. Preliminary
- V689. E. A. Kerr. Large egg shaped, smooth, crack
resistant, easy stemming, excellent flavor, excellent
quality canned. Compared with H 1350. Preliminary
- V6812. E.A. kerr. Small egg, smooth, firm, crack
resistant, very thick juice, mechanical harvesting.
Compare with H 1350. preliminary trial.
- V6814. E.A. Kerr. Medium small, plum shaped, firm,
crack resistant, easy stemming, mechanical harvest.
Compare with Campbell 19. Preliminary trial.
- Sweetmeat. Paul Thomas, Peto Seed Co., Inc., P.O.
Box 4206, Saticoy, Calif. 93003. Fusarium resistant,
Sugar Baby type. Good vine vigor and production of
medium sized fruit. To be released
19. The Glabrous male Sterile Gene in Watermelon
Victor M. Watts
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas
The glabrous male sterile character controlled by this
gene is described in the papers listed below. Currently
no line carrying msg has been fixed for satisfactory seed
yields combined with acceptable horticultural characters
for use as an F1 parent.
These stocks are offered to anyone who is interested in
exploring their potential.
- Watts, V.M. 1962. A marked male-sterile mutant in watermelon.
Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 81:498-505.
- Watts. V.M. 1967. Development of disease resistance
and seed production in watermelon stocks carrying the
msg gene. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 91: 579-583.
20. List of Members
- Andeweg, J.M. - Sluis Brothers Ltd., Afweg 31, Wageningen.
- Alvarez L., Eduardo - Simientes Mexicanas, S.A., Apartago
229, Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico
- Andrus, C.F. - Veg. Breeding Lab., P.O. Box 3348, Charleston,
- Angell, Frederick - Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of
Maryland, College Park 20742
- Archibald, J.A. - Horticultural Research Institute of
Ontario, Vineland Station, Canada
- Atkin, John D. - Waldo Rohnert Seed Co., 9870 Fairview
Rd., Hollister, Calif. 95023
- Bailey, R.M. - Dept. of Plant & Soil Sciences, University
of Main, Orono, Main 04473
- Barham, Warren S. - Basic Vegetable Products, Inc.,
Vacaville, California 95688
- Barksdale, Thomas - USDA- Crops Research Division, Beltsville,
- Barnes, W.C. - Clemson Univ. Truck Experiment Station,
P.O. Box 3158, Charleston, S.C. 29407
- Berry, James W., Jr. - 1100 W. 4th Street, Grandview,
- Berry, Stanley Z. - Ohio State Univ., Dept. of Hort.,
1827 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210
- Bienz, Darrel R. - Horticulture Dept., Washington State
Univ., Pullman, Washington 99163
- Blackhurst, H.T. - Hort. Section, Dept. of Soil &
Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, 77843
- Bohn, G.W. - U.S. Horticulture Field Station, P.O. Box
150, La Jolla, Calif. 92038
- Bonucci, Peter A. - Northrup, King & Co., 1500 Jackson
St., N.E., Minneapolis, Minn. 55413
- Borchers, Edward A. - Virginia Truck Experiment Sta.,
P.O. Box 2160, Norfolk, Va. 23501
- Bowers, John L. - Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, Ark. 72703
- Brashers, E.P. - Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of Delaware,
Newark, Del, 1871
- Brittingham, Wm. H. - Virginia Truck Experiment Station,
P.O. Box 2160 , Norfolk, Va. 23501
- Burpee, W. Atlee 3rd. - W. Atlee Burpee Co., Fordhook
Farms, Doylestown, Pa. 18901
- Burr, James R., Jr. - D'Arrigo Bros. Co. of California,
PO Box 369, Reedley, Calif. 93654
- Cadregari, Carl H. - Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton
Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624
- Carew, H.John - Dept of Horticulture, Michigan State
University, E. Lansing, Mich. 48823
- Chambliss, O.L. - U.S. Veg. Breeding Lab., P.O. Box
3348, Charleston, S.C. 29407
- Chipman, E.W. - Dept. of Agriculture Research Sta.,
Kentville, N.S., Canada
- Coyne, Dermot P. - Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of Nebraska,
Lincoln, Neb. 68503
- Cross, John E. - Research Dept., Asgrow Seed Co., PO
Box 6, Milpitas, California
- Currence, Hugh A. - Experimental Farm, PO Box 159, Agassiz,
- Davis, David W. - Dept. of Horticultural Science, Univ.
of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minn. 55101
- Davis, Glen N. - Dept. of Vegetable Crops, Univ. of
California, Davis, Calif, 95616
- Deakin, John R. - U.S. Veg. Breeding Lab., PO Box 3348.
Charleston, S.C. 29407
- Denna, Donald W. - Dept of Horticulture, Colorado State
Univ., Fort Collins 80521
- Dennett, R.K. - Hunts Foods & Industries, Inc.,
PO Box 220, Davis Calif. 95616
- de Vos, J.Paul - Internat'l Seed Breeders & Producers,
Inc., Bellevue, Wash. 98004
- Dickson, M.H. - Veg. Crops Dept., NYS Agricultural Experiment
Sta., Geneva, N.Y. 14456
- Dietz, Carl F. - Vaughan's Seed Co., 5300 Katrine Ave.,
Downers Grove, Illinois 60515
- Dolan, Desmond D. - Plant Introduction, NYS Agricultural
Exper. Sta., Geneva, N.Y. 14456
- Drewes, Harm - 336 Linwood Ave., Rochester, Michigan
- Dunes, John W - 102 Plant Industry, Univ. of Nebraska,
Lincoln, Ne. 68503
- Eggert, Joachim - Hunt-Wesson Food, Inc., Oregon Road,
PO Box 107, Perrysburg, O. 43551
- Engle, Ronald L. - Dessert Seed Company, Inc., PO Box
90008, Salem, Oregon 97305
- Erickson, H.T. - Dept. of Horticulture, Purdue Univ.,
Lafayette, Indiana 47907
- Fort Lupton Canning Company, PO Box 346, Fort Lupton,
- Franklin, DeLance - Univ. of Idaho Branch Experiment
Station, Parma, Idaho 83660
- Frazier, W.A. - Dept. of Horticulture, Oregon State
Univ., Corvallis, Ore. 97331
- Gabelman, Warren H. - Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of
Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 53706
- Geise, Charles E. - Calif. Packing Corp., 850 Thornton
St., San Leandro, Calif. 94577
- Gilbert, James C. - 182 Edmondson Road, Henke 121, Univ.
of Hawaii, Honolulu 96822
- Graham, T.O. - Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of Guelph
Ontario of Agr. College, Guelph, Canada
- Greenleaf, W.H. - Dept. of Horticulture, Auburn Univ.,
Auburn, Alabama 36830
- Greig, James K. - Dept. of Horticulture, Kansas State
Univ., Manhattan, Kansas 66502
- Griffiths, Albert E. - Horticulture Dept., Univ. of
Rhode Island, Kingston, R.I. 02881
- Hafer, Arnold - Michigan Horticultural Experiment Station,
Sodus, Mich. 49126
- Hagan, W.L. - Calif. Packing Corp., 850 Thornton St.,
San Leandro, Calif. 94577
- Hall, Charles V. - Dept. of Hort., Kansas State Univ.,
Manhattan, Kansas 66502
- Harrison, A.L. - Agr. Exper. Sta., Plant Disease Lab.,
Rt. 3, Box 307, Yoakum, Texas 77995
- Hayes, George - Garden Seed Dept., Earl May Seed Co.,
Shenadoan, Iowa 51601
- Henderson, Warren R. - N.C. State Univ., Dept. of Hort.
Science., Box 5216, Raleigh, NC 27607
- Hepler, Roger W. - SRS Seeds, Niagara Chem. Div. FMC
Corp., San Juan Bautista, Calif. 95045
- Hoffman, J.C. - U.S. Vegetable Breeding Lab., Box 3348.
Charleston, So. Carolina 29407
- Hollar, V.E. - Hollar & Company, Inc., Rocky Ford,
- Hollis, William L. - Nat'l Canners Assoc., 113 20th
St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 200036
- Honma, Shigemi - Dept. of Horticulture, Michigan State
Univer., E. Lansing, Mich. 48823
- Hopp, Richard J. - Dept. of Plant & Soil Science,
Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401
- Howell, John - Northrup, King & Co., Route 2, Box
433, Woodland, California 95695
- Huffington, Jess M. - Corneli Seed Co., 600 DeBaugh
Ave., Towson, Baltimore, Maryland 21204
- Hunter, Herman A. - University of Maryland, College
Park, Maryland 20742
- Ito, Phillip J. - Univ. of Hawaii Branch Station, 461
W. Lanikaula, Hilo, Hawaii 96720
- Jensma, J.R. - Unilever Research Labroatorium Duiven,
Helhoek 30, Groessen, Netherlands
- John, C.A. - H.J. Heinz Company, R.R. #4, Box 1127,
Bowling Green, Ohio 43402
- Jones, Charles M. - Dept. of Horticulture, Purdue Univ.,
Lafayette, Indiana 47907
- Jones, Henry A. - Dessert Seed Company, Inc., PO Box
181, El Centro, Calif. 92244
- Jones, Sam T. - Dept. of Horticulture, Auburn Univ.,
Auburn, Alabama 36830
- Jorgensen, Iver L. - Northrup, King& Co., 15000
Jackson St., N.E., Minneapolis, Minn. 55413
- Kallio, Arvo - Univ. of Alaska, College Experiment Sta.,
College, Alaska 99701
- Kemp, Gavin - Dept. of Agriculture Research Station,
Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
- Kerr, E.A. - Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario,
Vineland Station, Ont. Canada
- Klitgord, John H.- Seedman, 7347 East Main, Lima, New
- Laborde, Jose A. - Veg. Crops Dept., Univ. of California,
Davis, California 95616
- Lachman, Wm. H. - Dept. of Plant & Soil Sciences,
Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. 01003
- Laliberte, Jacques - Institut de Technologie Agricole,
C.P. 70, St-Hyacinthe, Que., Canada
- Lamberth, V.N. - Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of Missouri,
Columbia, Missouri 65202
- Lawyer, Lewis O. - Del Monte Corporation, Box 36, San
Leandro, California 95477
- Leach, E.C., Jr. - Leach Farms, Route 1, Box 190, Berlin,
- Leeper, Paul W. - Texas Agricultural Experiment Station,
Weslaco, Texas 78596
- Lent, Joseph M. - Veg. crops Dept., Univ. of Connecticut,
Storrs, Connecticut 06268
- Lorenz, LeVern - Box 52, Isabella, Oklahoma 73747
- Loy, Brent - Dept. of Plant Science, Univ. of New Hampshire,
Durham, N.H. 03824
- Lyall, L.H. - Veg. Crops Section, Dept. of Agriculture
Research Station, Ottawa, Canada
- McCabe, John J. - Ferry-Morse Seed Co., San Juan Bautista,
- McDonald, Wm. H. - Crookham Company, Box 651, Caldwell,
- MacDonald, Robert - Alf. Christianson Seed Co., Inc.,
PO Box 531, Mt. Vernon, Wash. 98273
- Magoun, John - Niagara Chem. Div., FMC Corp., PO Box
3091, Modesto, California 95359
- Mansour, N.S. - California Packing Corp., 850 Thornton
St., San Leandro, Calif. 94577
- Markarian, Deran - Curtice-Burns, Inc., PO Box 670,
Rochester, New York 14602
- Martin, Mark W. - Irrigation Experiment Station, Prosser,
- Matheson, James A. - Agway Inc. Vegetable Seed Farm,
PO Box 336, Prospect, Pa. 16052
- Meader, E.M. - RD 2, Box 515, Rochester, New Hampshire
- Metcalf, Homer N. - Plant & Soil Science Dept.,
Montana State Univ., Bozeman, Mont. 59715
- Metcalf, J.G. - Smithfield Experimental Farm, Box 340,
Trenton, Ontario, Canada
- Moore, J.F. - Campbell Soup Co. Ltd., R.R. 6 Brampton,
- Odland, Martin L. - Dept. of Horticulture, Pennsylvania
State Univ., University Park 16802
- Ogle, W.L. - Dept. of Horticulture, Clemson University,
Clemson, So. Carolina 29631
- Oesen, Pete - Pete Olesen & Associates, Box 529,
Caldwell, Idaho 83605
- Parker, M.C. - Gallatin Valley Seed Co., Box 167, Twin
Falls, Idaho 83301
- Parsons, Jack - Oregon State Univ., 256 Warner-Milne
Road, Oregon city, Oregon 97045
- Pearson, O.H. - Veg. Crops Dept., Cornell University,
Ithaca, New York 14850
- Peirce, L.C. - Dept. of Plant Science, Univ. of New
Hampshire, Durham, N.H. 03824
- Penney, Boyd G. - Experimental Farm, PI Box 2068W, St.
John's West, Newfoundland, Canada
- Peterson, C.E. - Dept. of Horticulture, Michigan State
Univ., E. Lansing, Mich. 48823
- Pierce, W.H. - Asgrow Seed Company, PO Box 1235, Twin
Falls, Idaho 83301
- Piersma, S.F. - Del Monte Corporation, P.O. Box 89,
Rochelle, Illinois 61068
- Pike, Leonard M. - Dept. of Soil & Crop Science,
Texas A&M Univ., College Station, Tex. 77843
- Prashar, Paul - Horticulture & Forestry Dept., South
Dakota State University., Brookings 57006
- Prend, Joseph - Agr. Res. Dept., H.J. Heinz Co., PO
Box 57, Tracy, California 95376
- Prins, M.W. - Pannevis Zaadteelt en Zaadhandel N.V.,
Delft, The Netherlands
- Reynolds, Charles W. - Horticulture Dept., Univ. of
maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742
- Rhodes, A.M. - Vegetables Crops Bldg., Univ. of Illinois,
Urbana, Illinois 61801
- Rick, C.M. - Vegetable Crops Dept., University of California,
Davis, Calif. 95616
- Robbins, M. LeRon - Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of
Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740
- Robinson, R.W. - Vegetable Crops Dept., NYS Agricultural
Exp. Sta., Geneva, N.Y. 14456
- Root, M. Bruce - Corneli Seed Company, 2440 Markridge
Circle, Racine, Wisconsin 53405
- Ryder, Edward J. - U.S. Agric. Res. Sta., PO Box 98-
Alisal Br. Salinas, Calif. 93905
- Scarchuk, John - Dept. of Plant Science, Univ. of Connecticut,
Storrs, Connecticut 06268
- Schroeder, W.T. - Plant Pathology Dept., NYS Agric.
Exp. Station, Geneva, N.Y. 14456
- Scott, E.Wilbur - Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm,
Rochester, New York 14624
- Scott, F.H. - Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Hort.
Dept., Blacksburg, Va. 24061
- Shifriss, Oved - Horticulture Bldg., Rutgers- The State
Univ., New Brunswick, N.J. 08903
- Simpson, B.E. - Vesey's Seeds, York, Prince Edward Island,
- Skirm, George W. - Asgrow Seed Company, PO Box 185,
R.D. #1 Bridgeton, New Jersey 08302
- Sluis, Norman - Sluis & Groot of America Inc., PO
Box 580, Menlo Park, Calif. 940225
- Sluis, Peter J.A. - Klein Vrijenban 3, Delft, The Netherlands
- Sluis, Simon J. - Sluis Brothers Ltd., Postbox 22, Enkhuizen,
- Smith, Paul G. - Vegetable Crops Dept., Univ. of California,
Davis, California 95616
- Smith, Robert L. - Smith's Nursery, R.R. #1, Mitchell,
South Dakota 57301
- Smith, Stuart N. - 1215 Orchard Drive, Ames, Iowa 500010
- Snyder, Robert J. - Dept. of Horticulture Univ. of Maryland,
College Park, Maryland 20742
- Sprague, A.P. - California Packing Corp., 850 Thornton
st., San Leandro, Calif. 945577
- Stark, F.C. - Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of Maryland,
College Park, Maryland 20740
- Steinke, Joseph - Asgrow seed Company, 21 North West
Drive, Bridgeton, New Jersey 08302
- Stoner, Allan K. - USDA Crops Research Division, Beltsville,
- Strohsnider, Robert E. - Asgrow Seed Company, R.D. 1,
Bridgeton, New Jersey 08302
- Tang, Robert C. - Dessert Seed Co., Inc., PO Box 181,
El Centro, California 92244
- Thomas, Paul C. - Peto Seed Company, PO Box 4206, Saticoy,
- Thompson, Anson E. - USAID/AG c/o American Embassy,
APO New York 09675
- Thompson, David J. - Ferry-Morse Seed Co., San Juan
Bautista, California 95045
- Thyr, B.D. - Cheyenne Hort. Field Station, PO Box 1087,
Cheyenne, Wyoming 82001
- Tibbitts, T.W. - Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of Wisconsin,
Madison, Wisconsin 57306
- Tigchelaar, E.C. - Am Embassy/Rio de J/Vicosa, APO New
- Tomes, Mark L. - Botany & Plant Path., Lilly Hall,
Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Indiana 47907
- Torrey, T.C. - W. Atlee Burpee Company, Fordhook Farms,
Doylestown, Pa. 18901
- Trotter, Allen R. - Asgrow Seed Company, Orange, Connecticut
- Turnquist, Orrin C. - Institute of Agriculture, Univ.
of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minn. 55101
- van Vliet, G.J.A. - Pannevis Zaadteelt & Zaadhandel
N.V., Delft, The Netherlands
- van Zanten, Jasper E.V. - c/o Sluis & Groot, Westeinde,
- Virgin, Walter J. - California Packing Corp., 850 Thornton
St., San Leandro, Calif. 94577
- Walker, J.C. - Dept. of Plant Path., Univ. of wisconsin,
Madison, Wisconsin 53706
- Walkof, Charles - Experimental Farm, Morden, Manitoba,
- Wann,, E.Van - U.S. Vegetable Breeding Lab., Box 3348,
Charleston, S.C. 29407
- Watts, Victor M. - Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, Ark. 72701
- Web, Raymond E. - USDA Crops Research Div., Plant Industry
Sta., Beltsville, Md. 20705
- Wester, Robert E. - USDA Crops Research Div., Plant
Industry Sta., Beltsville, Md. 20705
- Whitaker, Thomas W. - U.S. Horticultural Field Station,
PO Box 150, La Jolla, Calif. 92038
- Wiebe, John - Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario,
Vineland Station, Ont. , Canada
- Williams, Tom V. - Birds Eye Hort. Research., County
House Rd., Rd 3. Albion, N.Y. 14411
- Wittmeyer, E.C. - Ohio State Univ., Dept. of Hort.,
1827 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210
- Wolf, Emil A. - Everglades Experiment Station, Belle
Glade, Florida 33430
- Wyatt, Colen C. - Libby, McNeil & Libby, Leipsic,
- Young, Robert E. - Univ. of Mass. Field Station, 240
Beaver St., Waltham, Mass. 02154
- Zych, C.C. - Dept. of Horticulture, University of Illinois,
Urbana, Illinois 61801
- Attia, M.A. - FAO Near East Regional Office, 7 Sharia
Lazoghli, PO Box 2223, Garden City, Cairo
- Haigh, J.C. - Nat'l Vegetable Research Station, Wellesbourne,
- Hung, Lin - Hort. Dept., National Taiwan Univ., Taipei,
- Ito, Shojiro - c/o Takii's plant Breeding & Experiment
Sta., Kyoto, Japan
- Nickeson, Richard L. - Campbell's Soups Ltd., Agr. Res.
Dept., King's Lynn, Norfolk, England
- Tarakanov, G. - Dozentof Dept., Tiimiryzaev Vegetable
Growing Academy, Moscow A-8, USSR
- Librarian - Dept. of Agric., State Office Block, Sydney,
New South Wales, Australia
- Library - Research Branch, Canada Agric. P.O. Box 1210,
Charlottetown, P.E.I., Canada
- Library - Research Station, Canada Agric., Box 610,
Brandon, Manitoba, Canada
- Library - Experimental Farm, Canada Agric., Indian Head,
- Library - Experimental Farm, Canada Agric., Melfort,
- Library - Canada Agriculutre, Sir John Carling Building,
Ottawa, Ontario Canada
- Library - Research Branch, Canada Agriculture, Summerland,
- Librarian - Food & Agric. Organization of the U.N.,
Via Delle terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy
- Librarian - USDA National Agricultural Library, Current
Serial Record, Washington, D.C. 20250
- Librarian - Acquistions Div., Albert R. Mann Library,
Ithaca, New York 14850