Vegetable Improvement Newsletter
No. 14, February 1972
Compiled by H.M. Munger, Cornell University,
Ithaca, New York
1. Interlocular Cavitation in Snap Bean Pods
Paul E. Read, J.M. Lee, and David W. Davis
Department of Horticulture, University of Minnesota, St.
Paul, Minnesota 55101
Studies of interlocular cavitation (IC) in snap bean pods
have been carried out in this department for 3 years. The
incidence of IC has been known to decrease product quality
by; (1) causing more sloughing of pods during cooking, (2)
causing more tissue separation after canning and freezing,
(3) producing more malformed pods.
Continuous high soil moisture and low temperature during
the early stages of pod development and some other environmental
factors favored the incidence of IC. The incidence of IC
can be successfully minimized by cultural practices such
as proper irrigation schedule, proper planting times, and
by some growth regulators. It is interesting to note that
not only different varieties but also different lines developed
in the same variety show significant differences in the
incidence of IC, indicating future needs of proper breeding
efforts. Genetic and selection studies are underway in this
It is recommended that the evaluation of pod quality, both
in fresh and processed products, should consider IC as an
important quality factor.
2. An Orange Cauliflower
Muck Research Station, R.R. 4, Bradford, Ontario
A cauliflower with an orange curd appeared in a grower's
field of Stokes Extra Early Snowball near Bradford, Ontario
At "tying up" time the smaller curd was an attractive,
glossy, medium orange color. At harvest time, approximately
August 26, the curd was still the same attractive orange
color. The size, shape, and compactness of the curd was
the same as for Extra Early Snowball.
The epidermis of the leaf, leaf petiole, and main stem
were normal green in color. The internal color of the leaf
petiole and main stem was medium to light orange.
The habit of growth and plant size appeared to be identical
to that of Extra Early Snowball.
Dr. D.G. Walkey, Canada Dept. of Agriculture, 6660 N.W.
Marine Drive, Vancouver 8 B.C., propagated it vegetatively.
Seed has not yet been produced and consequently nothing
is know about the inheritance of this characteristic.
The orange cauliflower is attractive and distinctive.
It may have use in commercial breeding or in genetic studies.
3. A New Type of Clip for Cucumber Pollination
John L. Bowers
Department of Horticulture and Forestry, University of
Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 72701
We have found that the ladies single hair clip (item #449
Luna Clips), obtained from our local wholesale Beauty Supply
Store, has been the most effective piece of equipment for
bagging cucumber and cantaloupe flowers. The spring tension
of this particular clip is just with respect to keeping
the flower closed without injuring the corolla. Supplier
or handler of this product made in Japan is Continental
Hair Products, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 11223.
The ease of bagging flowers with this clip thus saving
time in the pollination operation has been responsible for
us adapting this procedure and dropping the cellophane tape
method. It is slightly more expensive but saves considerable
4. Pepper Virus Tolerance
T.A. Zitter and H.Y. Ozaki
University of Florida, Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Belle Glade, Florida, 33430 and Agricultural Research
Center, Morikami, Delray Beach, Florida, 33444, respectively
In tests conducted in the field and greenhouse during
the past 2 years, two Brazilian pepper cultivars have shown
tolerance to naturally occurring severe strains of both
tobacco etch virus (TEV) and potato virus Y (PVY). Both
Avelar and Agronomico 8 at the same time are immune to two
additional common strains of TEV and an additional common
strain of PVY. Virus tolerance is best exhibited in Avelar,
with symptom expression delayed for up to 3 weeks following
mechanical inoculation. A similar finding was observed in
the field following natural (aphid) inoculation. Symptoms
appeared soon in Agronomico 8 and tended to be more easily
5. Mosaic Infection of TMV Resistant Tomatoes
Marco A. Soto and H.M. Munger
Department of Plant Breeding, Cornell University, Ithaca,
New York, 14850
In a field planting in the summer of 1971, a high incidence
of mosaic was observed in tomatoes that were expected to
be resistant to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This was late
(June 14) planting of symptomless plants selected from progenies
inoculated in the greenhouse with TMV. The major part of
planting consisted of 8th and 6th backcrosses to Manapal
and Floralou respectively, carrying the TM-2a gene originally
obtained from Alexander in Ohio. In July these plants developed
severe leaf mottling and stunting, and they produced only
a few small distorted fruits, mostly without viable seed.
At first it was assumed that a virus, probably cucumber
mosaic, had moved in from an adjacent older planting of
tomatoes. This seemed unlikely when it was observed that
the few progenies in the late planting carrying the Tm-2
gene (obtained from Pecaut in France) and TM-2nv (originally
from Soost) were growing normally. Likewise, uninoculated
plants of Manapal, Floralou, Floradel, and Vendor showed
only slight or no leaf symptoms and produced fruit normally.
This led to the assumption that high summer temperatures
had broken down resistance as previously reported for plants
heterozygous for TM-2a. However, this was not supported
by the behavior of plants presumably homozygous for TM-2a.
Eight plants of Ohio MR9, MR12, and 2401 had been inoculated
in the greenhouse and none showed symptoms at field setting.
Four of each were set in the field and 7 of the 12 plants
developed more severe symptoms than the heterozygous plants
in that they produced even less fruit, essentially none
at all. On the other hand several progenies that were apparently
homozygous for TM-2a following 4 backcrosses to Floralou
generally produced many times as much fruit as the heterozygous
plants with Floralou or Manapal background or homozygous
plants of the Ohio varieties, suggesting that both background
genotypes and heterozygosity of the TM-2a gene may be influencing
Many of the plants showing mosaic symptoms were assayed
for virus in Samsum NN tobacco. The appearance of local
lesions and in some cases systemic infection indicated that
TMV and some other virus were present. Other indicator plants
confirmed the presence of TMV and suggested that the other
virus was CMV. Seedlings of Ohio MR12 have not become infected
when inoculated with the TMV isolated from the field. This
raises the question as to whether the presence of another
virus such as CMV may render the homozygous TM-2a plants
susceptible to TMV.
While the explanation is not clear at this point, the
extreme reaction of certain genotypes homozygous for TM-2a
when TM-2 and TM-2+ were affected much less or not at all
suggests some caution in the utilization of the gene.
6. TMV Resistance and Fertility
J. Farkas and Gy. Meszoly
Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Kecskemet, Hungary
Tm and Tm-2a genes in homozygote condition have no essential
effect on the quality of the pollen/ stainable pollen with
carmine-acetic acid 93-98%/ in our determinate or indeterminate
strains. The pollen quality depends more on the change of
external factors/ temperature, humidity/ in resistant lines
than in the sensitive ones. Seed-setting is normal in sensitive
plants with resistant pollen and inversely.
The reason of the poorer fertility can be sought for in
the structure of the flower. The fruits of some strains
have many locules: the stigma is large and it closes the
sterile tip of the anther, inhibiting normal pollination
partly or entirely/ the setting is 30-50% in the fall glasshouse
crop- based on 2 trusses, cut above 2 trusses, with vibration.
The smallest stigma is found in 01/oval/homozygote strains
with 2 locules: the fertility of the resistant lines is
similar to that of the sensitive ones/ oval strains: 70-85%,
Moneymaker: 75-80%. The advantage of 01 in fertility appears
also in TMV-resistant F1 hybrids.
7. Uncatalogued Vegetable Varieties Available for Trial
This list is aimed at facilitating the exchange of information
about potential new varieties, or new varieties which have
not yet appeared in catalogues. Persons conducting vegetable
variety trials who wish seed of items on this list should
request samples from the sources indicated.
It is the responsibility of the person sending out seed
to specify that it is for trial only, or any other restriction
he may want to place on its use.
Crops are listed alphabetically. For each entry the following
information is given: Designation, source of trial samples,
outstanding characteristics, variety suggested for comparison
(not given separately if mentioned in description), status
of variety (preliminary trial, advanced trial, to be released,
or released) and contributor of information if different
from source of trial samples. Where several samples are
listed consecutively from one source, the address is given
only for the first.
- G.N. Emerson. Dermot P. Coyne, Department of Horticulture
and Forestry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska
68503. A Great Northern dry bean with high tolerance
to orange, yellow, and purple strains of wilt bacteria
(Corynebacterium Flaccumfaciens var. Aurantiacum).
Compare with GN UI #59. This variety has large, bright,
white seed in comparison with the standard GN varieties.
The mean seed weight of GN Emerson is about 0.43 grams,
while the standard variety is about 0.33 grams. The
maturity and yield is comparable to GN UI #59. Source
of tolerance to the wilt bacteria was PI 165078 (Turkey).
Released foundation seed produced in 1971.
- NCX 806. FMC Corporation, Niagara Chemical Div.,
Western Research Center, P.O. Box 2508, El Macero,
California 95618 (Tom V. Williams). Wax snapbean with
strong erect bush, uniform waxing of round, smooth
pods. Compare with Earliwax. Advanced trial.
- MSU 110. S. Honma, Department of Horticulture, Michigan
State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823. Dark
green heads. Seedling tolerance to club root. If direct
seeded, club root tolerance at maturity. Advanced
- Market Victor. E.W. Scott, Joseph Harris Co., Inc.,
Rochester, New York 14624. Early, uniform, yellows
resistant with very solid interior, excellent quality.
Compare with Golden Acre. Released for sale.
- Red Winter. E.W. Scott. Very late, dark red with
round, solid head for long-term storage. Not yellows
resistant. To be released. (R.O. Wilkins)
- Starkwinter. E.W. Scott. Late Danish type for long-term
storage with green color. Compare with Green Winter.
Not yellows resistant. To be released. (R.O. Wilkins)
- Stintkolos. E.W. Scott. Late, solid, and short-cored
Danish for late kraut, slaw, or short-term storage.
Not yellows resistant. Compare with Round-up. To be
released. (R.O. Wilkins)
- Hybrid #15. E.W. Scott. Uniform, medium-early, yellows
resistant with blue-green, round solid head for market.
Compare with Market Prize. Released for sale. (R.O.
- Hybrid O. E.W. Scott. Uniform, midseason, vigorous,
yellows resistant, early Danish type for market. Compare
with Harris Resistant Danish. To be released. (R.O.
- Hybrid P. E.W. Scott. Uniform, midseason, yellows
resistant, market type with round, blue-green head
and tolerance to downy mildew. Compare with Market
Prize. To be released. (R.O. Wilkins)
- Hybrid U. E.W. Scott. Uniform, very early, yellows
resistant, with blue-green solid head for market.
Compare with Golden Acre. To be released. (R.O. Wilkins)
- Hybrid W. E.W. Scott. Midseason, uniform, yellows
resistant, with solid interior, short core for early
market. Compare with Sanabel. Released for sale. (R.O.
- Hybrid X. E.W. Scott. Uniform, late, yellows resistant,
Danish type for long-term storage with green color.
Compare with Harris Resistant Danish. Released for
sale. (R.O. Wilkins)
- Grenadier. E.W. Scott, Joseph Harris Co. Inc., 3670
Buffalo Road, Rochester, New York 14624. Early hybrid.
Market type with good color. Compare with Spartan
Sweet. Released Sept., 1971. (C.H. Cadregari)
- Minipak. E.W. Scott. Short, very early hybrid. Primary
use as whole baby carrot for cellopak. Released 1971.
- 9160P6. E.W. Scott. Slim, highly colored hybrid
with tolerance to leaf blight. Holds shape and diameter.
Compare with Spartan Delight, Waltham Hi Color. To
be released. (C.H. Cadregari)
- 91AN. E.W. Scott. Early, market type hybrid. Compare
with Hipak. Advanced trial. (C.H. Cadregari)
- Dessert Exp. 301-3. R.L. Engle, Dessert Seed Co.
Inc., PO Box 9008, Brooks, Oregon 97305. Uniform,
good color, free of green shoulder, possible slicer.
Compare with Imperator 58 and Spartan Sweet. Preliminary
- Calmario. FMC Corporation, Niagara Chemical Div.,
Western Research Center. PO Box 2508, El Macero, California
95618 (Tom V. Williams). Wide, heavy, green petioles.
Very productive. High pack out of large and medium
stalks. Preliminary information suggests tolerance
to Pink Rot. Compare with Florida 683. To be released.
- Dessert Exp 405. Ronald L. Engle, Dessert Seed Co.
Inc., PO Box 9008, Brooks, Oregon 97305. Gynoecious
hybrid with fine black spines. Scab and CMV resistant.
Compare with Pioneer. Preliminary trial.
- 71-95. H.M. Munger, Department of Plant Breeding,
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850. Wisconsin
SMR18 type with white spine and uniform fruit color
incorporated by backcrossing. Preliminary trial. Seed
of the white spine version with standard fruit color
(SMR18W.S) is also available.
- Marketmore 72. H.M. Munger. Marketmore 70 type with
the non-bitter gene added. This gene ensures that
fruit will not be bitter but also makes the plants
more susceptible to two spotted mites. It also makes
the seedlings less attractive to cucumber beetles.
- Tablegreen 72. H.M. Munger. Tablegreen 65 with non-bitter
- Classic. E.W. Scott. Joseph Harris Co. Inc., 3670
Buffalo Road, Rochester, New York 14624. Early hybrid
with black fruit and excellent plant habit. Compare
with Jersey King. Released 1971. (C.H. Cadregari)
- 20R. E.W. Scott. Late hybrid with large plant and
excellent color. Compare with Florida Market. Advanced
trial. (C.H. Cadregari)
- 79R. E.W. Scott. Large late hybrid with excellent
color and good plant habit. Compare with Florida Market.
Advanced trial. (C.H. Cadregari)
- D777. Ronald L. Engle, Dessert Seed Co. Inc., P.O.
Box 9008, Brooks, Oregon 97305. High yield, good storage
quality, primarily single center, dark color, strong
scale. May be too late for northern mucks. Compare
with Fiesta. Advanced trial.
- Nutmeg. E.W. Scott, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., 3670
Buffalo Road, Rochester, New York 14624. Early, high
yielding hybrid with excellent color and medium size.
Compare with Autumn Spice. Released 1971. (C.H. Cadregari)
- 4351. E.W. Scott. High yielding hybrid with bright
bronze color and long storage life. Compare with Spartan
Banner. Released but not named. (C.H. Cadregari)
- D5544. E.W. Scott. Large late hybrid for eastern
transplants or late season areas. Preliminary trial.
- 5551. E.W. Scott. High yielding hybrid, large bulbs
with globe shape. Compare with Elba Globe. Advanced
trial. (C.H. Cadregari)
- D5561. E.W. Scott. Very high yielding hybrid, good
color, large globe. Preliminary trial. (C.H. Cadregari)
- Frommage. S. Honma, Department of Horticulture,
Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan
48823. Small fruited pepper for processing, 2"
in diameter by 1 1/2 inches long, thick fleshed and
- Greenleaf Tabasco. W.H. Greenleaf, Horticulture
Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. Resistant
to tobacco etch virus and ripe rot, high fruit density
and yield. Compare with "Etch" susceptible
original Tabasco. Released in December, 1970, and
increased in 1971.
- 400. Philip Villa, Petoseed Co., Inc., Saticoy,
California 93003. Early, prolific, bulky bell, thick
walls. Compare with Yolo Wonder. Advanced trial.
- 888. E.W. Scott. Joseph Harris Co. Inc., 3670 Buffalo
Road, Rochester, New York 14624. Husky compact hybrid
with high yield of halloween pumpkins. Advanced trial.
- Slendergold. FMC Corporation, Niagara Chemical
Div., Western Research Center, PO Box 3508, El Macero,
California 95618. Very productive, crookneck Yellow
Summer Squash hybrid. Excellent freezing quality with
uniform slices. Compare with Dixie. This variety has
not been trialed to fresh market outlets but has excellent
potential as a processing type. (Tom. V. Williams)
- Aristocrat. Mr. Philip Villa. Petoseed Co. Inc.,
PO Box 4206, Saticoy, California 93003. Early, dark
green Zucchini type hybrid, producing over long season.
Compare with Storr's Green or Blackjack. To be released.
- 471. Mr. Philip Villa. Early hybrid, longer than
usual straightneck squash. Compare with Butterbar.
- 671. Mr. Philip Villa. A very early and very prolific
yellow straightneck hybrid. Compare with Goldbar.
- 7371. Philip Villa. Early hybrid with open plant
and single stem. Compare with Early Prolific Crookneck.
- 261-265-9. Philip Villa. A distinctly longer, slender,
dark green Zucchini type hybrid. Compare with Blackjack
or Blackini. To be released.
- 284-232-9. Philip Villa. Early hybrid with open
plant habit. Compare with Green Tint or White Bush
Scallop. To be released.
- Sweet Corn
- Goldenrod. FMC Corporation, Niagara Chemical Div.,
Western Research Center, PO Box 2508, El Macero, California
95618. Long, slender hybrid with cylindrical ears,
very attractive exterior and interior appearance;
14-16 rows, mainly for fresh market. Compare with
Calumet. This hybrid is particularly well adapted
to areas such as the Rio Grande Valley of Texas, where
clipped fresh market sweet corn predominates. To be
released. (Tom. V. Williams)
- XP420. J.A. Matheson, Agway Inc., Vegetable Seed
Farm, Prospect, Pa. 16052. Bicolor hybrid, 3 days
earlier than Butter and Sugar. To be released.
- VH 691. E.A. Kerr, Horticultural Research Institute
of Ontario, Vineland Station, Ontario, Canada. Extremely
early with good ear size. Compare with Spancross.
- EB11. E.W. Scott, Joseph Harris Co. Inc. Rochester,
New York 14624. Second early market corn. 12-16 rows,
Sin. K. Yellow. Compare with Earlibelle. Advanced
- WH2479. E.W. Scott. White corn similar to and in
season with Gold Cup. Compare with Silver Queen. Advanced
- Golden Delight. Paul Prashar, Department of Horticulture
and Forestry, South Dakota State University, Brookings,
South Dakota 57006. Determinate plant, early maturity
(55-57 days), golden yellow fruit, average 5 oz. Compare
with Fireball. To be released.
- Heinz 2134. Agricultural Research Department, H.J.
Heinz Co., 13737 Middleton Pike, Bowling Green, Ohio
43402. Very early, j2, sp, V and F (race 1) resistant.
Compare with Fireball. Preliminary trial.
- Hybrid MAD2. H.M. Munger, Department of Plant Breeding,
Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York 14850. Double resistance
to TMV. The parentage is Manapal carrying TM-2a x
Floradel carrying TM-2nv. Compare with Manapal. Advanced
trial. A similar hybrid MAL2 is also available for
trial. In this one, the second parent is Floralou
- K. Jubileum. Vegetable Crops Research Institute,
Kecskemet, Hungary. Semi-determinate, good foliage
cover, uniform ripening, for processing. Compare with
K. Konzerv. Released 1971. Gy. Meszoly.
- Stakeless. E.P. Brasher, Department of Plant Science,
University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19711. Determinate,
potato-type leaves, thick stems, short distance between
nodes and resistant to fusarium wilt. No comparable
variety known. The plants of stakeless are unique
in that they will support their fruit above the ground
without artificial aids. This variety is recommended
for trial only in home gardens and ornamental plantings.
To be released.
- Allsweet. Charles V. Hall, Department of Horticulture,
Kansas State Univ., Manhattan 66502. Cylinder shape,
striped fruits, excellent quality and long season
maturity (90 days). Sister to Crimson Sweet - week
longer maturity. Compare with Jubilee or Charleston
Gray. To be released.
8. Stocks Desired
- D.W. Denna, Department of Horticulture, Colorado State
University, Ft. Collins, Colorado 80521
- Tomato: Lycopersicon esculentum x L. peruvianum
F2 or early generation material.
- Beans: Male sterile Phaseolus vulgaris lines. Known
self-incompatible Phaseolus coccineus lines.
Phaseolus vulgaris x P. coccineus F2
or early generation material.
- Al Slinkard, Dept. of Plant Science, University of Idaho,
Moscow, Idaho 83843
- Peas: (1) Male sterile; (2) Brev (short filaments
that prevent self pollination); (3) Pe (petaloid anthers);
(4) Soft seedcoat
- Hamdy M. Eisa, Arid Lands Research Center, P.O. Box
638, Abu Dhabi, Arabian Gulf
- Tomato, Lettuce, Other vegetables: Stocks which
withstand the combination of high temperature (above
90 degrees F) and higher relative humidity (80-90%)
- M.S. Attia, FAO, P.O. Box 913, Khartoum, Sudan
- Tomatoes: Resistant to root knot nematodes, Fusarium
wilt and Alternaria
- Peppers: Sweet and hot types resistant to Fusarium,
Alternaria, powdery mildew, and virus
- Cucurbits: Resistant to powdery mildew
- Peas: Resistant to powdery mildew
- Beans: Resistance to bean fly