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Vegetable Improvement Newsletter

No. 14, February 1972

Compiled by H.M. Munger, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York


1. Interlocular Cavitation in Snap Bean Pods

Paul E. Read, J.M. Lee, and David W. Davis

Department of Horticulture, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101

Studies of interlocular cavitation (IC) in snap bean pods have been carried out in this department for 3 years. The incidence of IC has been known to decrease product quality by; (1) causing more sloughing of pods during cooking, (2) causing more tissue separation after canning and freezing, (3) producing more malformed pods.

Continuous high soil moisture and low temperature during the early stages of pod development and some other environmental factors favored the incidence of IC. The incidence of IC can be successfully minimized by cultural practices such as proper irrigation schedule, proper planting times, and by some growth regulators. It is interesting to note that not only different varieties but also different lines developed in the same variety show significant differences in the incidence of IC, indicating future needs of proper breeding efforts. Genetic and selection studies are underway in this department.

It is recommended that the evaluation of pod quality, both in fresh and processed products, should consider IC as an important quality factor.


2. An Orange Cauliflower

C.C. Filman

Muck Research Station, R.R. 4, Bradford, Ontario

A cauliflower with an orange curd appeared in a grower's field of Stokes Extra Early Snowball near Bradford, Ontario in 1971.

At "tying up" time the smaller curd was an attractive, glossy, medium orange color. At harvest time, approximately August 26, the curd was still the same attractive orange color. The size, shape, and compactness of the curd was the same as for Extra Early Snowball.

The epidermis of the leaf, leaf petiole, and main stem were normal green in color. The internal color of the leaf petiole and main stem was medium to light orange.

The habit of growth and plant size appeared to be identical to that of Extra Early Snowball.

Dr. D.G. Walkey, Canada Dept. of Agriculture, 6660 N.W. Marine Drive, Vancouver 8 B.C., propagated it vegetatively. Seed has not yet been produced and consequently nothing is know about the inheritance of this characteristic.

The orange cauliflower is attractive and distinctive. It may have use in commercial breeding or in genetic studies.


3. A New Type of Clip for Cucumber Pollination

John L. Bowers

Department of Horticulture and Forestry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 72701

We have found that the ladies single hair clip (item #449 Luna Clips), obtained from our local wholesale Beauty Supply Store, has been the most effective piece of equipment for bagging cucumber and cantaloupe flowers. The spring tension of this particular clip is just with respect to keeping the flower closed without injuring the corolla. Supplier or handler of this product made in Japan is Continental Hair Products, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 11223.

The ease of bagging flowers with this clip thus saving time in the pollination operation has been responsible for us adapting this procedure and dropping the cellophane tape method. It is slightly more expensive but saves considerable time.


4. Pepper Virus Tolerance

T.A. Zitter and H.Y. Ozaki

University of Florida, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, Florida, 33430 and Agricultural Research Center, Morikami, Delray Beach, Florida, 33444, respectively

In tests conducted in the field and greenhouse during the past 2 years, two Brazilian pepper cultivars have shown tolerance to naturally occurring severe strains of both tobacco etch virus (TEV) and potato virus Y (PVY). Both Avelar and Agronomico 8 at the same time are immune to two additional common strains of TEV and an additional common strain of PVY. Virus tolerance is best exhibited in Avelar, with symptom expression delayed for up to 3 weeks following mechanical inoculation. A similar finding was observed in the field following natural (aphid) inoculation. Symptoms appeared soon in Agronomico 8 and tended to be more easily observed.


5. Mosaic Infection of TMV Resistant Tomatoes

Marco A. Soto and H.M. Munger

Department of Plant Breeding, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14850

In a field planting in the summer of 1971, a high incidence of mosaic was observed in tomatoes that were expected to be resistant to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This was late (June 14) planting of symptomless plants selected from progenies inoculated in the greenhouse with TMV. The major part of planting consisted of 8th and 6th backcrosses to Manapal and Floralou respectively, carrying the TM-2a gene originally obtained from Alexander in Ohio. In July these plants developed severe leaf mottling and stunting, and they produced only a few small distorted fruits, mostly without viable seed.

At first it was assumed that a virus, probably cucumber mosaic, had moved in from an adjacent older planting of tomatoes. This seemed unlikely when it was observed that the few progenies in the late planting carrying the Tm-2 gene (obtained from Pecaut in France) and TM-2nv (originally from Soost) were growing normally. Likewise, uninoculated plants of Manapal, Floralou, Floradel, and Vendor showed only slight or no leaf symptoms and produced fruit normally. This led to the assumption that high summer temperatures had broken down resistance as previously reported for plants heterozygous for TM-2a. However, this was not supported by the behavior of plants presumably homozygous for TM-2a. Eight plants of Ohio MR9, MR12, and 2401 had been inoculated in the greenhouse and none showed symptoms at field setting. Four of each were set in the field and 7 of the 12 plants developed more severe symptoms than the heterozygous plants in that they produced even less fruit, essentially none at all. On the other hand several progenies that were apparently homozygous for TM-2a following 4 backcrosses to Floralou generally produced many times as much fruit as the heterozygous plants with Floralou or Manapal background or homozygous plants of the Ohio varieties, suggesting that both background genotypes and heterozygosity of the TM-2a gene may be influencing the reaction.

Many of the plants showing mosaic symptoms were assayed for virus in Samsum NN tobacco. The appearance of local lesions and in some cases systemic infection indicated that TMV and some other virus were present. Other indicator plants confirmed the presence of TMV and suggested that the other virus was CMV. Seedlings of Ohio MR12 have not become infected when inoculated with the TMV isolated from the field. This raises the question as to whether the presence of another virus such as CMV may render the homozygous TM-2a plants susceptible to TMV.

While the explanation is not clear at this point, the extreme reaction of certain genotypes homozygous for TM-2a when TM-2 and TM-2+ were affected much less or not at all suggests some caution in the utilization of the gene.


6. TMV Resistance and Fertility

J. Farkas and Gy. Meszoly

Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Kecskemet, Hungary

Tm and Tm-2a genes in homozygote condition have no essential effect on the quality of the pollen/ stainable pollen with carmine-acetic acid 93-98%/ in our determinate or indeterminate strains. The pollen quality depends more on the change of external factors/ temperature, humidity/ in resistant lines than in the sensitive ones. Seed-setting is normal in sensitive plants with resistant pollen and inversely.

The reason of the poorer fertility can be sought for in the structure of the flower. The fruits of some strains have many locules: the stigma is large and it closes the sterile tip of the anther, inhibiting normal pollination partly or entirely/ the setting is 30-50% in the fall glasshouse crop- based on 2 trusses, cut above 2 trusses, with vibration. The smallest stigma is found in 01/oval/homozygote strains with 2 locules: the fertility of the resistant lines is similar to that of the sensitive ones/ oval strains: 70-85%, Moneymaker: 75-80%. The advantage of 01 in fertility appears also in TMV-resistant F1 hybrids.


7. Uncatalogued Vegetable Varieties Available for Trial in 1972

This list is aimed at facilitating the exchange of information about potential new varieties, or new varieties which have not yet appeared in catalogues. Persons conducting vegetable variety trials who wish seed of items on this list should request samples from the sources indicated.

It is the responsibility of the person sending out seed to specify that it is for trial only, or any other restriction he may want to place on its use.

Crops are listed alphabetically. For each entry the following information is given: Designation, source of trial samples, outstanding characteristics, variety suggested for comparison (not given separately if mentioned in description), status of variety (preliminary trial, advanced trial, to be released, or released) and contributor of information if different from source of trial samples. Where several samples are listed consecutively from one source, the address is given only for the first.

  • Bean
    • G.N. Emerson. Dermot P. Coyne, Department of Horticulture and Forestry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68503. A Great Northern dry bean with high tolerance to orange, yellow, and purple strains of wilt bacteria (Corynebacterium Flaccumfaciens var. Aurantiacum). Compare with GN UI #59. This variety has large, bright, white seed in comparison with the standard GN varieties. The mean seed weight of GN Emerson is about 0.43 grams, while the standard variety is about 0.33 grams. The maturity and yield is comparable to GN UI #59. Source of tolerance to the wilt bacteria was PI 165078 (Turkey). Released foundation seed produced in 1971.
    • NCX 806. FMC Corporation, Niagara Chemical Div., Western Research Center, P.O. Box 2508, El Macero, California 95618 (Tom V. Williams). Wax snapbean with strong erect bush, uniform waxing of round, smooth pods. Compare with Earliwax. Advanced trial.
  • Broccoli
    • MSU 110. S. Honma, Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823. Dark green heads. Seedling tolerance to club root. If direct seeded, club root tolerance at maturity. Advanced trial.
  • Cabbage
    • Market Victor. E.W. Scott, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Rochester, New York 14624. Early, uniform, yellows resistant with very solid interior, excellent quality. Compare with Golden Acre. Released for sale.
    • Red Winter. E.W. Scott. Very late, dark red with round, solid head for long-term storage. Not yellows resistant. To be released. (R.O. Wilkins)
    • Starkwinter. E.W. Scott. Late Danish type for long-term storage with green color. Compare with Green Winter. Not yellows resistant. To be released. (R.O. Wilkins)
    • Stintkolos. E.W. Scott. Late, solid, and short-cored Danish for late kraut, slaw, or short-term storage. Not yellows resistant. Compare with Round-up. To be released. (R.O. Wilkins)
    • Hybrid #15. E.W. Scott. Uniform, medium-early, yellows resistant with blue-green, round solid head for market. Compare with Market Prize. Released for sale. (R.O. Wilkins)
    • Hybrid O. E.W. Scott. Uniform, midseason, vigorous, yellows resistant, early Danish type for market. Compare with Harris Resistant Danish. To be released. (R.O. Wilkins)
    • Hybrid P. E.W. Scott. Uniform, midseason, yellows resistant, market type with round, blue-green head and tolerance to downy mildew. Compare with Market Prize. To be released. (R.O. Wilkins)
    • Hybrid U. E.W. Scott. Uniform, very early, yellows resistant, with blue-green solid head for market. Compare with Golden Acre. To be released. (R.O. Wilkins)
    • Hybrid W. E.W. Scott. Midseason, uniform, yellows resistant, with solid interior, short core for early market. Compare with Sanabel. Released for sale. (R.O. Wilkins)
    • Hybrid X. E.W. Scott. Uniform, late, yellows resistant, Danish type for long-term storage with green color. Compare with Harris Resistant Danish. Released for sale. (R.O. Wilkins)
  • Carrot
    • Grenadier. E.W. Scott, Joseph Harris Co. Inc., 3670 Buffalo Road, Rochester, New York 14624. Early hybrid. Market type with good color. Compare with Spartan Sweet. Released Sept., 1971. (C.H. Cadregari)
    • Minipak. E.W. Scott. Short, very early hybrid. Primary use as whole baby carrot for cellopak. Released 1971. (C.H. Cadregari)
    • 9160P6. E.W. Scott. Slim, highly colored hybrid with tolerance to leaf blight. Holds shape and diameter. Compare with Spartan Delight, Waltham Hi Color. To be released. (C.H. Cadregari)
    • 91AN. E.W. Scott. Early, market type hybrid. Compare with Hipak. Advanced trial. (C.H. Cadregari)
    • Dessert Exp. 301-3. R.L. Engle, Dessert Seed Co. Inc., PO Box 9008, Brooks, Oregon 97305. Uniform, good color, free of green shoulder, possible slicer. Compare with Imperator 58 and Spartan Sweet. Preliminary trial.
  • Celery
    • Calmario. FMC Corporation, Niagara Chemical Div., Western Research Center. PO Box 2508, El Macero, California 95618 (Tom V. Williams). Wide, heavy, green petioles. Very productive. High pack out of large and medium stalks. Preliminary information suggests tolerance to Pink Rot. Compare with Florida 683. To be released.
  • Cucumber
    • Dessert Exp 405. Ronald L. Engle, Dessert Seed Co. Inc., PO Box 9008, Brooks, Oregon 97305. Gynoecious hybrid with fine black spines. Scab and CMV resistant. Compare with Pioneer. Preliminary trial.
    • 71-95. H.M. Munger, Department of Plant Breeding, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850. Wisconsin SMR18 type with white spine and uniform fruit color incorporated by backcrossing. Preliminary trial. Seed of the white spine version with standard fruit color (SMR18W.S) is also available.
    • Marketmore 72. H.M. Munger. Marketmore 70 type with the non-bitter gene added. This gene ensures that fruit will not be bitter but also makes the plants more susceptible to two spotted mites. It also makes the seedlings less attractive to cucumber beetles. Advanced trial.
    • Tablegreen 72. H.M. Munger. Tablegreen 65 with non-bitter gene added.
  • Eggplant
    • Classic. E.W. Scott. Joseph Harris Co. Inc., 3670 Buffalo Road, Rochester, New York 14624. Early hybrid with black fruit and excellent plant habit. Compare with Jersey King. Released 1971. (C.H. Cadregari)
    • 20R. E.W. Scott. Late hybrid with large plant and excellent color. Compare with Florida Market. Advanced trial. (C.H. Cadregari)
    • 79R. E.W. Scott. Large late hybrid with excellent color and good plant habit. Compare with Florida Market. Advanced trial. (C.H. Cadregari)
  • Onion
    • D777. Ronald L. Engle, Dessert Seed Co. Inc., P.O. Box 9008, Brooks, Oregon 97305. High yield, good storage quality, primarily single center, dark color, strong scale. May be too late for northern mucks. Compare with Fiesta. Advanced trial.
    • Nutmeg. E.W. Scott, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., 3670 Buffalo Road, Rochester, New York 14624. Early, high yielding hybrid with excellent color and medium size. Compare with Autumn Spice. Released 1971. (C.H. Cadregari)
    • 4351. E.W. Scott. High yielding hybrid with bright bronze color and long storage life. Compare with Spartan Banner. Released but not named. (C.H. Cadregari)
    • D5544. E.W. Scott. Large late hybrid for eastern transplants or late season areas. Preliminary trial. (C.H. Cadregari)
    • 5551. E.W. Scott. High yielding hybrid, large bulbs with globe shape. Compare with Elba Globe. Advanced trial. (C.H. Cadregari)
    • D5561. E.W. Scott. Very high yielding hybrid, good color, large globe. Preliminary trial. (C.H. Cadregari)
  • Pepper
    • Frommage. S. Honma, Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823. Small fruited pepper for processing, 2" in diameter by 1 1/2 inches long, thick fleshed and mild. Released.
    • Greenleaf Tabasco. W.H. Greenleaf, Horticulture Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. Resistant to tobacco etch virus and ripe rot, high fruit density and yield. Compare with "Etch" susceptible original Tabasco. Released in December, 1970, and increased in 1971.
    • 400. Philip Villa, Petoseed Co., Inc., Saticoy, California 93003. Early, prolific, bulky bell, thick walls. Compare with Yolo Wonder. Advanced trial.
  • Pumpkin
    • 888. E.W. Scott. Joseph Harris Co. Inc., 3670 Buffalo Road, Rochester, New York 14624. Husky compact hybrid with high yield of halloween pumpkins. Advanced trial. (C.H. Cadregari)
  • Squash
    • Slendergold. FMC Corporation, Niagara Chemical Div., Western Research Center, PO Box 3508, El Macero, California 95618. Very productive, crookneck Yellow Summer Squash hybrid. Excellent freezing quality with uniform slices. Compare with Dixie. This variety has not been trialed to fresh market outlets but has excellent potential as a processing type. (Tom. V. Williams)
    • Aristocrat. Mr. Philip Villa. Petoseed Co. Inc., PO Box 4206, Saticoy, California 93003. Early, dark green Zucchini type hybrid, producing over long season. Compare with Storr's Green or Blackjack. To be released. (Paul Thomas)
    • 471. Mr. Philip Villa. Early hybrid, longer than usual straightneck squash. Compare with Butterbar. Preliminary trial.
    • 671. Mr. Philip Villa. A very early and very prolific yellow straightneck hybrid. Compare with Goldbar. Preliminary trial.
    • 7371. Philip Villa. Early hybrid with open plant and single stem. Compare with Early Prolific Crookneck. Preliminary trial.
    • 261-265-9. Philip Villa. A distinctly longer, slender, dark green Zucchini type hybrid. Compare with Blackjack or Blackini. To be released.
    • 284-232-9. Philip Villa. Early hybrid with open plant habit. Compare with Green Tint or White Bush Scallop. To be released.
  • Sweet Corn
    • Goldenrod. FMC Corporation, Niagara Chemical Div., Western Research Center, PO Box 2508, El Macero, California 95618. Long, slender hybrid with cylindrical ears, very attractive exterior and interior appearance; 14-16 rows, mainly for fresh market. Compare with Calumet. This hybrid is particularly well adapted to areas such as the Rio Grande Valley of Texas, where clipped fresh market sweet corn predominates. To be released. (Tom. V. Williams)
    • XP420. J.A. Matheson, Agway Inc., Vegetable Seed Farm, Prospect, Pa. 16052. Bicolor hybrid, 3 days earlier than Butter and Sugar. To be released.
    • VH 691. E.A. Kerr, Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario, Vineland Station, Ontario, Canada. Extremely early with good ear size. Compare with Spancross. Advanced trial.
    • EB11. E.W. Scott, Joseph Harris Co. Inc. Rochester, New York 14624. Second early market corn. 12-16 rows, Sin. K. Yellow. Compare with Earlibelle. Advanced trial.
    • WH2479. E.W. Scott. White corn similar to and in season with Gold Cup. Compare with Silver Queen. Advanced trial.
  • Tomato
    • Golden Delight. Paul Prashar, Department of Horticulture and Forestry, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57006. Determinate plant, early maturity (55-57 days), golden yellow fruit, average 5 oz. Compare with Fireball. To be released.
    • Heinz 2134. Agricultural Research Department, H.J. Heinz Co., 13737 Middleton Pike, Bowling Green, Ohio 43402. Very early, j2, sp, V and F (race 1) resistant. Compare with Fireball. Preliminary trial.
    • Hybrid MAD2. H.M. Munger, Department of Plant Breeding, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York 14850. Double resistance to TMV. The parentage is Manapal carrying TM-2a x Floradel carrying TM-2nv. Compare with Manapal. Advanced trial. A similar hybrid MAL2 is also available for trial. In this one, the second parent is Floralou carrying TM-2nv.
    • K. Jubileum. Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Kecskemet, Hungary. Semi-determinate, good foliage cover, uniform ripening, for processing. Compare with K. Konzerv. Released 1971. Gy. Meszoly.
    • Stakeless. E.P. Brasher, Department of Plant Science, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19711. Determinate, potato-type leaves, thick stems, short distance between nodes and resistant to fusarium wilt. No comparable variety known. The plants of stakeless are unique in that they will support their fruit above the ground without artificial aids. This variety is recommended for trial only in home gardens and ornamental plantings. To be released.
  • Watermelon
    • Allsweet. Charles V. Hall, Department of Horticulture, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan 66502. Cylinder shape, striped fruits, excellent quality and long season maturity (90 days). Sister to Crimson Sweet - week longer maturity. Compare with Jubilee or Charleston Gray. To be released.

8. Stocks Desired

  • D.W. Denna, Department of Horticulture, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado 80521
    • Tomato: Lycopersicon esculentum x L. peruvianum F2 or early generation material.
    • Beans: Male sterile Phaseolus vulgaris lines. Known self-incompatible Phaseolus coccineus lines. Phaseolus vulgaris x P. coccineus F2 or early generation material.
  • Al Slinkard, Dept. of Plant Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83843
    • Peas: (1) Male sterile; (2) Brev (short filaments that prevent self pollination); (3) Pe (petaloid anthers); (4) Soft seedcoat
  • Hamdy M. Eisa, Arid Lands Research Center, P.O. Box 638, Abu Dhabi, Arabian Gulf
    • Tomato, Lettuce, Other vegetables: Stocks which withstand the combination of high temperature (above 90 degrees F) and higher relative humidity (80-90%)
  • M.S. Attia, FAO, P.O. Box 913, Khartoum, Sudan
    • Tomatoes: Resistant to root knot nematodes, Fusarium wilt and Alternaria
    • Peppers: Sweet and hot types resistant to Fusarium, Alternaria, powdery mildew, and virus
    • Cucurbits: Resistant to powdery mildew
    • Peas: Resistant to powdery mildew
    • Beans: Resistance to bean fly
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Page citation: Wehner, T.C., Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative;
Created by T.C. Wehner and T. Ng, 1 June 2005; design by C.T. Glenn;
send questions to T.C. Wehner; last revised on 30 January, 2006