Vegetable Improvement Newsletter
No. 19, February 1977
Compiled by H.M. Munger, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
1. Growth Analysis of Dry Matter, Economic Bulb Yield and Protein Production of Several Varieties of Onion (Allium cepa L.)
Department of Plant Breeding, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
Five field experiments were conducted in 1973-75 at East Ithaca and Freeville, New York with the objective of characterizing the yielding ability of several onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties by growth analysis. Seven varieties were chosen to cover a wide range of maturity, dry matter percent, storability, and pungency. The varieties were Pront S, Spartan Banner, Cornell Single Center Synthetic (53J), Italian Red, Amigo, Southport White Globe and Makoi (Hungarian).
Simplified growth analysis procedure was used, measuring the two component physiological processes that are all inclusive and closest to final yield: net accumulation of photosynthate (biological dry matter yield) and partitioning of the photosynthate to the bulbs. The data collected were used to calculate: a) harvest index i.e. percent of biological yield that is economic, b) efficiency of bulb dry matter production (kg/ha/day), and c) efficiency of total plant dry matter production (kg/ha/day).
The results indicate that the economic bulb yield of these onion varieties is not correlated with days to maturity, economic dry matter production or biological dry matter production. Varieties differ only slightly in rate of dry matter production in the whole plant and in the proportion of dry matter partitioned to the bulbs.
The economic yielding ability of the different varieties was found to be highly and significantly correlated with the percent moisture of the bulbs. A highly significant, negative correlation coefficient of r = -0.8572 was found between the bulb yield and the percent dry matter of the bulbs, indicating that about 73% of the economic yield variations could be explained or attributed to differences in percent moisture of the bulbs. Thus in breeding for high dry matter, which is of primary interest for dehydration, there is a strong probability of selecting for low bulb yields.
Protein determinations of onions grown in 1975 indicated that variety differences in protein yield were associated mainly with the dry matter yielding ability. Protein percentage on a dry weight basis showed little variability. Although percent protein of the bulbs in relatively low, total protein yield (kg/ha) and efficiency of protein production on daily basis (kg/ha/day) are as high as those obtained for most legumes.
Evaluation of stored onions pungency by mouth tasting suggested a decrease with progressive storage but determinations by threshold concentration technique indicated the opposite. Most probably the two techniques do not measure the same variable.
High correlations were obtained between the three variables; soluble solids, pungency, and dry matter percent.
2. Request for Isogenic or Near-Isogenic Lines of Peas
Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N OWO, Canada
Isogenic or near-isogenic lines provide a powerful tool for genetic, breeding and physiological studies. They may be developed by 1) repeated backcrossing to the recurrent parent, concurrently selecting for the desired gene from the donor parent, 20 selecting for the heterozygote until nearly homozygous for other genes (F6 to F8) and then selfing to produce the two contrasting homozygotes or 3) induced mutations in a mother line.
I am in the process of assembling a diverse array of near-isogenic lines of peas. The genes that I am interested in are for monogenic qualitative traits. I will maintain, increase and list the lines in The Pisum Newsletter and small quantities of seed of each line will be made available to interested researchers upon request.
An excellent source of isogenics is from genetic studies. Many geneticists have seed from heterozygous F2 or F3 plants or from segregating F3 plant rows. If these involve a monogenic qualitative trait, please send a small seed sample to me. Testcross progenies also provide an excellent source of heterozygous plants. I will then complete development of the isogenic line.
Please send at least 20 seeds of both forms of each near-isogenic set of lines along with a notation as to the contrasting trait, its source, the generation and the method used in isolating the isogenic lines to: A.E. Slinkard, Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N OWO, Canada.
3. Cytosterile Cabbage and Broccoli
Department of Plant Breeding, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
After harvest of the current Brassica nursery now in bloom in the greenhouse, seed of cytoplasmic male sterile cabbage and broccoli crossed with self fertile standard varieties that can be used to maintain them, will be available in small quantities for use of plant breeders. This material cannot be used directly for production of hybrid seed because it will be the first backcross of the variety type to a kale-like cytosterile plant. It bears no relation to the petaloid form of cytoplasmic male sterility previously described and released, and represents a much better system.
Ogura in Japan in 1968 discovered a cytoplasmic male sterile in radish which had no restorers in Japanese radish stocks. Bannerot at the Plant Breeding station in Versailles, France, crossed this cyto-sterile radish by cabbage in 1974 and produced the amphidiploid, raphanobrassica, which he reduced to the Brassica genome by repeated open pollination and embryo culture when necessary. In 1974 he thus secured a plant with a Brassica genome in radish cytoplasm which was male sterile, producing only shriveled anthers from seed which had been produced in a multivariety crossing field. In 1975 he kindly furnished me with some of this seed, and in the spring of 1976 we crossed the plants with a number of standard cabbage varieties. This spring we are backcrossing the progenies of these crosses to self fertile cabbage parents, and it is seed of these backcrosses which will be available. No restoration has been found. Restorers for this particular cytoplasm occur only in European radish (Bonnet, 1975).
The plants of our controlled crosses to cabbage resembled a Jersey kale x cabbage F1, vigorous plants, some lobation of the leaves, a roughened leaf blade, and practically no heading tendency. Leaf color varied somewhat, yellow-green in crosses by Badger Ballhead types, and a full blue-green by Danish Ballhead.
Shriveled and vestigial anthers are usually present; the inner whorl of stamens may sometimes become carpeloid but very seldom completely encloses the pistil, thus not being a barrier to pollination. The pistil is normal, of two carpels, and the mature seed pod was long, slender, thin walled, and fully fertile. However, additional backcrossing to a recurrent parent can be expected to rapidly change flower and seed pod structure as well as heading tendency and type. I think that at least three more backcrosses will be required to make any of these lines reasonably acceptable.
Because self compatible lines are required to maintain any form of cytoplasmic male sterility, a search has been made in commercial varieties for self fertile plants. These were used in the first cross in 1976, and are being used this season. Seed of these will also be available. These cabbage lines have not been selected for type, and their combining ability has not been studied; the main requirement was to have something that would reduce the wild character of the original release to manageable proportions, and to produce seed. As a suggested nomenclature for the radish-based cytosterile Brassica lines, I shall designate the variety or lot as “R-Golden Acre”, “R-Green Winter”, etc., indicating that the seed contains radish cytoplasm. Suggestions for a better system will be welcome. The self-fertile varieties, with which we have cytosterile backcrosses, are:
- Golden Acre
- Red Danish
- Wisconsin All Seasons
- Green Winter
- Louisiana All Year
- Badger Market
- Chieftain Savoy
- Eastern Ballhead
- Badger Ballhead
- Danish Ballhead
- Badger Inbred 3
- Badger Inbred 8
- Mid Season Broccoli
Small quantities of seed of these, subject to crop harvested and number of requests received by June 1, 1977, will be available. Requests should be sent to O.H. Pearson, Department of Plant Breeding, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853.
- Bonnet, A. 1975. Ann. Amelior. Plantes 25(4): 381-397.
- Bannerot, H., et al. 1976. Cruciferae 1974. Proc. Eucarpia Meeting. 25-27, Sept.
- Ogura, H. 1968. Mem. Fac. Agri. Kagoshima Univ. 6: 39-78.
4. Uncatalogued Vegetable Varieties Available for Trial in 1977
This list is aimed at facilitating the exchange
of information about potential new varieties, or new varieties
which have not yet appeared in catalogues. Persons conducting
vegetable variety trials who wish seed of items on this
list should request samples from the sources indicated.
It is the responsibility of the person sending
out seed to specify that it is for trial only, or any other
restriction he may want to place on its use.
Crops are listed alphabetically. For each
entry the following information is given: Designation, source
of trial samples, outstanding characteristics, variety suggested
for comparison (not given separately if mentioned in description),
status of variety (preliminary trial, advanced trial, to
be released, or released) and contributor of information
if different from source of trial samples. Where several
samples are listed consecutively from on source, the address
is given only for the first.
- Bean (Wax)
- Gabriella. L.J. Zanoni, Asgrow Seed Co., Kalamazoo, Michigan 49001. Plants compact, erect, with small leaves, excellent pod set. Pods 4.5”, slender, round, straight, bright lemon color. Seeds white. Released.
- ORE CR-1. J.R. Baggett, Horticulture Dept., Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331. Late maturity, commercial type and quality, adapted to northwest. Resistant to club root. Suggested as most useful as breeding parent. Compare with any main season variety. Advanced trial.
- HYB. D. Carl H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Medium sized, dome shaped head with small buds on a downy mildew resistant plant. 90-day maturity. Market type. Advanced trial. Compare with Topper types. (R.O. Wilkins).
- HYB. E. Carl H. Cadregari. Large, heavy, early head with medium bud size on a downy mildew resistant plant. 55 day maturity for market or processing. Compare with Green Comet. To be released. (R.O. Wilkins).
- Futura. L.J. Zanoni, Asgrow Seed Co., Kalamazoo, Michigan 49001. Plants taller than Gem, broader leaves. Heads uniform size. Medium large, well rounded, dense, with refined buds. Matures with Gem. Tolerant of downy mildew. Adapted as summer crop in coastal California. Released.
- 1242. Carl H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Large, round, smooth, blue green head on a vigorous, yellows and black rot resistant plant. 85 day market and/or kraut type. Compare with Sanibel. Advanced trial. (R.O. Wilkins).
- 1253. Carl H. Cadregari. Small, round, smooth, blue green head on an upright, yellows and black rot resistant plant. 75 day market type. Compare with Market Topper. Advanced trial. (R.O. Wilkins).
- 1254. Carl H. Cadregari. Large, round, smooth, blue head on a vigorous yellows resistant plant that stands well. 90 day storage, kraut and/or slaw type. Compare with Roundup. Advanced trial. (R.O. Wilkins).
- 1256. Carl H. Cadregari. Medium sized round, smooth, bright green head on a vigorous yellows and black rot resistant plant. 80 day market and/or kraut type. To be released. (R.O. Wilkins).
- Olympus. L.J. Zanoni, Asgrow Seed Co., Kalamazoo, Michigan 49001. Plants larger, with larger jacket, upright leaves, good curd protection. Heads 6-6-1/2”, curd snow white, deep. Compare Snowball Y. Released.
- Snow flower. L.J. Zanoni. Plants relatively large, leaves erect, good curd protection, early. Heads large, smooth, with snow white curd. For late summer or fall crop. Compare Snowball. Released.
- D exp-630. Ronald L. Engle, Dessert Seed Co., P.O. Box 9008, Brooks, Oregon 97305. Good yield with Danvers 126 type. Good color. Compare with Dess-Dan, or Spartan Bonus. Advanced trial.
- 6 K13. Carl H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Early long Nantes. Compare with Pioneer. Preliminary trial.
- EN 13. Carl H. Cadregari. Early Nantes type. Compare with Pioneer. Preliminary trial.
- (B3640 x B3080) x B2158-1. C.E. Peterson, 211 Horticulture Bldg., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc. 53706. Uniform high color, high soluble solids. Good flavor. Compare with Imperator 58 and Gold Pak. To be released in 1977.
- PSX 574. Petoseed Research Center, Route 4, Box 1255, Woodland, Calif. 95695. Medium dark green pickle, highly gynoecious. Resistant or tolerant to CMV, downy mildew, anthracnose, angular leaf spot, and scab. To be released. (Colen Wyatt).
- C589. Carl H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Pickle, early high yield, dark color, SMR. Compare with Compass. Preliminary trial. (R. Dumlao).
- NCR744. C.E. Peterson, 211 Horticulture Bldg., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc. 53706. White spine non-bitter, parthenocarpic gynoecious. Resistant to scab, CMV, powdery mildew, downy mildew; tolerant to anthracnose. For home garden use, so compare with Improved Long Green, Straight Eight or other home garden varieties. To be released in 1978.
- PSX 1274. Petoseed Research Center, Route 4, Box 1255, Woodland, Calif. 95695. Early gynoecious slicer. Resistant to CMV, scab, anthracnose, downy and powdery mildew. Compare with Victory. Advanced trial. (Jon Watterson).
- 59R. Carl H. Cadregari. Early, dark color, SMR; tolerance to ALS. Preliminary trial. (R. Dumlao).
- 76R7. Carl H. Cadregari. Early, SMR, dark color. Compare with Victory. Preliminary trial. (R. Dumlao).
- G4R7. Carl H. Cadregari. Early hybrid, SMR. Dark color. Compare with Gemini. Preliminary trial. (R. Dumlao).
- Poinsett 76. H.M. Munger, Dept. of Plant Breeding, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14853. Similar to Poinsett in fruit type and performance, but with uniform color and scab resistance added. Fruit is slightly longer than Poinsett. Released.
- Marketmore 76. H.M. Munger. Performance, fruit type, and disease resistance identical to Marketmore 70, but with resistance to powdery mildew and downy mildew added. Released.
- AR76 Gy49. J.L. Bowers, Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. 72701. Extremely firm fruit, free of carpel separation and placental hollowness, resistant to anthracnose and powdery mildew. It is a gynoecious inbred. Compare with SC Gy 14. Preliminary trial.
- Black Bell. Petoseed Research Center, Route 4, Box 1255, Woodland, Calif. 95695. Very dark colored, green calyx, bell shaped. Compare with Black Magic. Released. (Jon Watterson).
- Ichiban. Petoseed Research Center. Extremely early and productive. Long cylindrical oriental type. Excellent cooking qualities. Compare with Long Tom. Released. (Jon Watterson).
- PSX 6175. Petoseed Research Center. Heavy yielding, round shape, purple. Compare with Black Beauty. Advanced trial. (Jon Watterson).
- JKBSR. Carl H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Excellent color, high yield. Compare with Classic. Preliminary trial. (R. Dumlao).
- 64BSR. Carl H. Cadregari. Elongate, oval fruit. Good color. Compare with Classic. Preliminary trial. (R. Dumlao).
- Muskmelon and Cantaloupe
- Progress (Trial designation MR335/PD23). H.M. Munger, Dept. of Plant Breeding, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14853. A mid season hybrid with moderate resistance to powdery mildew. Well netted oval shaped fruit with dark orange flesh of good quality. Vines remain healthy when most varieties go down with “sudden wilt”. Released.
- HxP#2. Carl H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Early, firm flesh. Compare with Early Dawn. Preliminary trial.
- HxP#1. Carl H. Cadregari. Early, firm flesh. Compare with Early Dawn. Preliminary trial.
- Dixie Jumbo. Petoseed Research Center, Route 4, Box 1255, Woodland, Calif. 95695. Mid season, very prolific, yields over a long period. Good quality and yield. Compare with Planters or Hales Best Jumbo. Released. (Pat Crill).
- Red 1001. Ronald L. Engle, Dessert Seed Co., P.O. Box 9008, Brooks, Oregon 97305. Red Spanish type hybrid. Globe. Good yields with long storage life. Compare with Southport, Red Globe, or Ruby. Advanced trial.
- 5537. Carl H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624.
- Deep globe, firm, good color, high yield. Compare with Spartan Banner. Preliminary trial.
- 1456. Carl H. Cadregari. Early. Better color and storage than Early Yellow Globe. Preliminary trial.
- Corvallis. J.R. Baggett, Horticulture Dept., Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331. Possibly three days later than Little Marvel with milder flavor. Resistant to pea enation virus. Adapted as home garden variety in northwest. Released.
- Abador. L.J. Zanoni, Asgrow Seed Co., Kalamazoo, Michigan 49001. Virus determinate, compact, double podded. Pods 6-8 seeded, with small dark skinned peas. 2.1 sieve. For commercial freezing. Compare with Mars. Released.
- Deli. L.J. Zanoni. Similar to Alsweet, but double podded. Compare with 4683. Released.
- Frisky. L.J. Zanoni. Plants determinate, short vined, dark green, vigorous, compact, highly double podded. High pod/vine ratio. Pods blunt, dark green, long, with 6-8 small seeds, 2.4 sieve. For commercial freezing. Released.
- Ivy. L.J. Zanoni. Plants vigorous, relatively compact, small leaved, highly double podded. Full season. Pods slightly curved, blunt, with 6-8 small dark green peas. 2.5 sieve. Resistant to Fusarium wilt. Released.
- Rally. L.J. Zanoni. Plants medium length (30”), vigorous, prolific, 100% double podded. Pods with 8 seeds/pod, sieve 2.4. Compare with Charger or Dart. Released.
- Southern Pea
- AR74-3537. J.L. Bowers, Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. 72701. Plant semi dwarf, has concentrated pod set character. Belongs in the pinkeye purple hull group. Advanced trial.
- Starr. Tom V. Williams, FMC Corp., Box 2508, El Macero, Calif. 95618. Plants vigorous, upright. Fruits large, blocky, 4-lobed. Formerly NC x 4010. Released.
- OS. Carl H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Early, compact plant, Yolo type. TMV resistant. Preliminary trial. (R. Dumlao).
- PSR 375. Petoseed Research Center, Route 4, Box 1255, Woodland, Calif. 95695. Super large bells, productive hybrid. Advanced trial. (Albert T.T. Yu).
- PSR 275. Petoseed Research Center. Very large bells. Productive hybrid. Medium dark green maturing to red. Compare with Cal Wonder 300. Advanced trial. (Albert T.T. Yu).
- YWF76. K.G. Proudfoot, Agr. Research Station, P.O. Box 7098, St. John’s West, Nfld. A1E 3Y3. Purple top, yellow flesh, smooth roots. Resistant to common races of club root, combining resistance of York and Wilhelmsburger. Good storage quality. Similar in appearance to Laurentian. To be released in 1977 under license.
- RST F76. K.G. Proudfoot. Purple top, yellow fleshed roots, longer than Laurentian. Club root resistance derived from intercrossing rutabaga and summer turnip varieties. Preliminary trial.
- NZ. Carl H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Extra early zucchini. Good length, dark fruit color. Compare with Zucchini Elite. Preliminary trial.
- CIAGB. Carl H. Cadregari. Dark green zucchini, high yield. Compare with Zucchini Elite. To be released.
- Genie. Tom V. Williams, FMC Corp., Box 2508, El Macero, Calif. 95618. Open bush hybrid, productive. Fruits cylindrical, smooth, medium green with light flecking. Compare with Senator. Released.
- PSR 2273. Petoseed Research Center, Route 4, Box 1255, Woodland, Calif. 95695. Dark green hybrid zucchini, productive, good foliage cover. Smooth fruits. Compare with Ambassador. Advanced trial. (Albert T.T. Yu).
- Butternut 77. H.M. Munger, Dept. of Plant Breeding, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14853. Butternut type with short vine; fruit set near crown. Fruit size and yield similar to standard Butternut strains, quality somewhat better, probably because of earlier maturity. Released.
- 76-32-1. Paul Prashar, Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry, South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, S.D. 57006. Early with heavy yield of medium size cherry type fruit. Sets fruit at low temperatures, and holds fruit over a longer period. Advanced trial.
- 76-201-1. Paul Prashar. Early, heavy set of large pear shaped fruits. Good foliage cover. Compare with Roma. Advanced trial.
- Earlirouge. J.G. Metcalf, Smithfield Exp. Farm, Res. Branch, Agr. Canada, Box 340, Trenton, Ont., Canada K8V 5R5. Early, smooth, good size, high crimson fruits. Crack resistant. Compare with Springset. To be released.
- IXV22. Carl H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Determinate VF vine; early; firm fruits with excellent color. Compare with Springset. Preliminary trial.
- NFV2. Carl H. Cadregari. Determinate VF vine; second early; firm fruits with good color. Compare with Redpak. Preliminary trial.
- LAR2. Carl H. Cadregari. Semi determinate, midseason hybrid. Large fruited, VF. Compare with Ace types. Preliminary trial.
- Ace-Hy. Petoseed Research Center, Route 4, Box 1255, Woodland, Calif. 95695. An earlier maturing, smooth fruited Ace type. To be released. (Pat Crill).
- Floramerica. Petoseed Research Center. A mid to early season multiple disease resistant variety bearing large smooth fruits for home garden or roadside markets. Compare with Walter. To be released. (Pat Crill).
5. Stocks Desired
If you have suitable material to supply, please communicate directly with the person making the request.
C.A. John, A.L. Castle, Inc., 24401 South West 197th Ave., Homestead, Florida 33031.
- Watermelon mosaic virus tolerance and powdery mildew tolerance in cultivated species of Cucurbita.
John L. Bowers, Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry, 304 Agriculture Building, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. 72701.
- Spinach - Fusarium wilt resistance.
- Cucumber - negative geotropic character on pistillate flower position. Resistance to fruit rot.
- Southern peas - bacterial blight resistance.
L.M. Pike, Horticulture Sciences Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843.
Cucumber lines with following characteristics:
- Early flowering
- Cold tolerant
- Dwarf or determinate types
- Types showing extreme vigor
- Small seeds
- Resistance to cucumber diseases (Please indicate which disease the line is resistant to if possible)