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Vegetable Improvement Newsletter

No. 21, February 1979

Compiled by H.M. Munger, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York


1. A Summary of Cucumbers Released from the Cornell Breeding Program

H.M. Munger

Departments of Plant Breeding and Vegetable Crops, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14853

The purpose of this note is to summarize and clarify the status of cucumbers released as either varieties or germplasm from Cornell University. In the table, the symbol “+” indicates that the item carries the character named in the column heading, while “-“ indicates its absence.

In the Tablegreen series, Tablegreen 72 (the non-bitter version of Tablegreen 65) was originally considered a germplasm release, but there has been some interest in using it as a variety and it is now available for increase as such. Tablegreen 72F (non-bitter and gynoecious) has not been offered previously but it is available in small amounts. If we should happen to get many requests, we may have to multiply it in 1979 before we can supply much seed.

Spacemaster was offered for trial as 72-196 and only one seedsman wanted to multiply and introduce it. If others are interested, small amounts of foundation seed are available.  It is essentially a very dwarf version of Tablegreen 65.

Marketmore 72 (non-bitter Marketmore 70) might have been a variety except for a black spine contaminant that ruined our initial increase.  By the time it was cleaned up, Marketmore 76 seemed so much more important that Marketmore 72 was bypassed. A true stock of Marketmore 72 is available as germplasm if anyone wants it. That is probably irrelevant now that Marketmore 80 (non-bitter PMR) is nearly ready for release. The susceptibility of non-bitter cucumbers to spider mites which has been reported is something we have seen repeatedly in the greenhouse. We have seen it once in the field in some 10 or 12 years of growing this type of cucumber. Caution in adopting the non-bitter types would seem to be advisable in any circumstance where mites are known to be a problem.

Marketmore 72F (non-bitter gynoecious) has been requested by a few seedsmen and some seed is still available. A more important gynoecious line is Marketmore 76F which is mildew resistant but does not carry the non-bitter gene. We need to recheck the homozygosity of some of the progenies on hand and the result along with extent of interest in the seed will determine whether we have enough seed to release in the spring of 1979.

Characteristics of Cornell Cucumber Variety and Germplasm Releases.

 
Type
Status * 1979
Gynoecious
CMV Res.
Scab Res.
PM Res.
DM Res.
Unif. color
Non-bitter
Dwarf
Tablegreen
Slicer
V
-
High
-
Med.
Med.
+
-
-
Tablegreen 65
Slicer
V
-
High
+
Med.
Med.
+
-
-
Tablegreen 66 **
Slicer
G
-
High
+
Med.
Med.
+
-
-
Tablegreen 68
Slicer
G
+
High
+
Med.
Med.
+
-
-
Tablegreen 72
Slicer
V
-
High
+
Med.
Med.
+
+
-
Tablegreen 72F
Slicer
G
+
High
+
Med.
Med.
+
+
-
Spacemaster
Slicer
V
-
High
+
Med.
Med.
+
-
+
Marketmore
Slicer
V
-
High
+
-
-
-
-
-
Marketmore 70
Slicer
V
-
High
+
-
-
+
-
-
Marketmore 70F
Slicer
G
+
High
+
-
-
+
-
-
Marketmore 72
Slicer
G
-
High
+
-
-
+
+
-
Marketmore 72F
Slicer
G
+
High
+
-
-
+
+
-
Marketmore 76
Slicer
V
-
High
+
High
High
+
-
-
Marketmore 76F
Slicer
Trial
+
High
+
High
High
+
-
-
Marketmore 80
Slicer
Trial
-
High
+
High
High
+
+
-
Poinsett 76
Slicer
V
-
Susc.
+
Med. High
Med. High
+
-
-
SR551
Pickle
G
-
High
+
-
-
-
-
-
SR551F
Pickle
G
+
High
+
-
-
-
-
-

*V= Variety, G = Germplasm

**Similar to Tablegreen 65 but with longer fruit and later maturity


2. Development of New High-Quality Decorative Cucurbita Maxima Hubbard, Marrow, and Cylindrical Fruit Types

Dermot P. Coyne

Department of Horticulture, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68503

There is a need to develop an attractive smaller size Hubbard and Marrow type squashes for the modern smaller size families. In addition dual purpose winter squashes combining attractive skin color markings and wartiness as well as good baking quality should be useful to the homeowner for decoration as well as for cooking.

I report here on some unexpected variation and selections for these fruit types made here in a donated Cucurbita maxima population as well as selection for a novel elongated cylindrical attractively colored winter squash.

I received seed, from which these selections were made in a highly variable population, from the late Wayne Whitney, Extension Specialist, University of Nebraska, who in turn received the seed from Mrs. Alice Graham, Ashland, Nebraska. The first mention of this ‘Indian’ squash was in the Fort Atkinson and Fort Robinson’s military records of the Nebraska territory. It was reported that the Indians who inhabited the area stored this squash and used it to prevent scurvy. The troopers then grew this squash in their gardens and avoided scurvy in the winter by eating this squash. Army wives gave this seed to Mrs. Newman of Alliance, Nebraska, and was grown by her in her garden until given to Mrs. Graham about 1953.

The original squash type was described as being about 30-34 inches long, 8 to 10 inches in diameter with a deep green skin and brilliant color markings. Baking quality was reported as excellent. I found no description of this type of squash in the literature and was interested in making it available to the Nebraska public. I planted the 200 seeds made available to me and made a self on each plant. Only one plant produced a fruit possessing fruits approaching the original fruit description. The segregation clearly indicated that the population had outcrossed to Hubbard and possibly Banana types in a local garden.

The variation of fruit shapes (Hubbard, Marrow, and the original elongated type) with brilliant and attractive color markings on warted or smooth rinds, and different fruit sizes, provided as excellent opportunity to make selfed selections of new fruit types possessing both highly decorative effects and good baking quality. The derived S6 lines will now be evaluated in trials in 1979 and 1980. Seed of the more promising lines will then be increased and then made available to interested persons in 1980.

I think these squash types will be useful to sell to the public in road-side stands and sold on the basis of good baking quality as well for decoration.


3. Development of a Round C. Moschata Winter Squash with Butternut Qualities and Free of the Crookneck Rogue

Dermot P. Coyne

Department of Horticulture, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68503

A true breeding crookneck rogue CR-67-1-7 derived from Butternut was crossed with Yellow Cushaw (also true breeding for crookneck fruit) to determine if they possessed the same gene controlling the crookneck trait. Segregation for crookneck and straightneck fruit was observed in the F2 of the reciprocal crosses indicating that different genes controlling the crookneck trait were present in each of the parents. Five different shapes of straightneck fruit were as follows: blocky butternut’s type, long butternut type, narrow-necked fruit with large bulb, bell-shaped fruit with no neck, and short and flattened fruit with no neck.  Selfed selections (S4) for the latter two fruit types and for near-round fruit types were made because of the possible usefulness of these types as indicated later in this note. Near-round fruit with Butternut-colored skin, flesh, and baking characteristics were selected from open pollinated (outcross to Butternut lines) plants in the S4 generation and selections were again made for this fruit type through the S6 generation. We decided to discard lines possessing flattened or bell-shaped fruits since our local public did not appear interested in picking these types in abandoned plots at the end of the season while they removed all the Butternut and round types.

This new type of winter squash will need a market test to determine consumer acceptance. The fruit are about the same size as the regular Acorn and are prepared in the same manner for baking as Acorn squash. In my view, the quality of our baked round type is superior in flavor and texture to Acorn squash. I need to obtain storage data on this new type of squash but preliminary observations indicate that it will not store as well as Acorn.

The crookneck rogue and fruit splitting are a recurring problem in most stocks of regular Butternut and causes problems for the seed producers and the growers. I have observed no crookneck rogues on split fruit in this round type squash, so we may have overcome these problems by developing a round type with qualities similar to Butternut.

This type of squash will be compared in replicated yield trials with Butternut and Acorn squash in 1979. A storage experiment will also be conducted.

A small seed increase will also be made in isolation in 1979 and seed made available for testing next fall.


4. Uncatalogued Vegetable Varieties Available for Trial in 1979

This list is aimed at facilitating the exchange of information about potential new varieties, or new varieties which have not yet appeared in catalogues. Persons conducting vegetable variety trials who wish seed of items on this list should request samples from the sources indicated.

It is the responsibility of the person sending out seed to specify that it is for trial only, or any other restriction he may want to place on its use.

Crops are listed alphabetically. For each entry the following information is given: Designation, source of trial samples, outstanding characteristics, variety suggested for comparison (not given separately if mentioned in description), status of variety (preliminary trial, advanced trial, to be released, or released) and contributor of information if different from source of trial samples. Where several samples are listed consecutively from on source, the address is given only for the first.

  • Cabbage
    • 5017. C.H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, 3670 Buffalo Rd., Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Fusarium yellows and black rot resistant, 3 lb. slightly flattened market type. Compare to Market Topper. To be released.
  • Cauliflower
    • 77-873. S. Honma, Dept. of Horticulture, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Mich. 48824. Early, hot weather type. Compare to Snow Crown. Advanced trial.
    • 77-876. S. Honma. Early, hot weather type. Compare to Snow Crown. Advanced trial.
    • 77-979. S. Honma. Early, hot weather type. Compare to Snow Crown. Advanced trial.
  • Cucumber
    • Beit Alpha M.R. Hybrid. R.L. Engle, Dessert Seed Co., Inc., P.O. Box 9008, Brooks, Oregon 97305. Fine spine hybrid, pickling type. Compare to Beit Alpha. To be released.
    • Tablegreen 72F. H.M. Munger, Dept. of Plant Breeding, 410 Bradfield Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14853. Gynoecious and non-bitter, otherwise similar to Tablegreen 65. Germplasm release.
    • Marketmore 76F. H.M. Munger. Gynoecious, mildew resistant, otherwise similar to Marketmore 70, Germplasm release.
    • Marketmore 80. H.M. Munger. Resistant to scab, CMV, and mildews (i.e. similar to Marketmore 76) but with non-bitter gene added. Unlike previous new versions of Marketmore, it is not clear that this one represents improvement. It provides insurance against bitter fruit and some resistance to cucumber beetles but is more susceptible to mites and rabbits. Opinions on the desirability of releasing it are urgently needed. Compare to Marketmore 76. Preliminary trial.
    • 12AC2. C.H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, 3670 Buffalo Rd., Rochester, N.Y. 14624. SMR, tolerant to ALS, excellent brining pickle. Compare to Calypso. To be released. (R.C. Dumlao).
    • MRHS. Carl H. Cadregari. Semi-dwarf, SMR, d.m., p.m. tolerant slicer with the uniform color gene. Ideal for home gardens with limited space. Compare to Patio Pik. Advanced trial. (R.C. Dumlao).
    • GDM. Carl H. Cadregari. SMR, p.m., d.m. tolerant, slicer with the uniform color gene. Compare to Pacer. Preliminary trial. (R.C. Dumlao).
    • 4JC2. C.H. Cadregari. SMR, ALS, p.m., d.m. tolerant, good brining pickle. Compare to Carolina. To be released. (R.C. Dumlao).
  • Muskmelon
    • PMR Harvest Queen. H.M. Munger, Dept. of Plant Breeding, 410 Bradfield Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14853. Resistant to races 1 and 2 of powdery mildew and similar to Harvest Queen as a result of 5 backcrosses. The descriptive designation is not an official name and does not imply any commitment for release. Preliminary trial.
    • PMR Iroquois. H.M. Munger. Resistant to races 1 and 2 or powdery mildew and similar to Iroquois in other respects. Descriptive designation rather than number is used for convenience and is not a name. Preliminary trial.
    • G25VB. C.H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, 3670 Buffalo Rd., Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Very large size. Fusarium tolerance. Very deep green sutures. Oval to oblong shape. Coarse netting. Compare to Saticoy. To be released. (T. Superak).
  • Onion
    • Bumper-C. R.L. Engle, Dessert Seed Co., Inc., P.O. Box 9008, Brooks, Oregon 97305. Early yellow globe hybrid. Large, uniform, good storage quality. Compare to Elite. To be released.
    • Carmen. R.L. Engle. Red hybrid. Early, long storage. Compare to Southport Red Globe, Released.
    • Surecrop (5537). C.H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, 3670 Buffalo Rd., Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Good yield, storage. Midseason maturity a few days ahead of Banner. Shape globe to deep globe. Compare to Spartan Banner. To be released. (T. Superpak).
    • D6255. C.H. Cadregari. Long storage. Compare to Spartan Sleeper. Preliminary trial. (T. Superpak).
  • Pea
    • S581. J.R. Baggett, Dept. of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331. Powdery mildew, enation mosaic resistant. Compare to Oregon Sugarpod. Very similar, medium dwarf plant, double pods. Advanced trial.
    • S582. J.R. Baggett. Powdery mildew, enation mosaic resistant. Compare to Oregon Sugarpod, but darker green, same medium dwarf growth habit and pod size. Advanced trial.
  • Pepper
    • YLS.  C.H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, 3670 Buffalo Rd., Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Sweet, long, smooth, bright green fruits ripening orange-yellow with excellent flavor, frying type. Compare to Italian Green. To be released. (R.C. Dumlao).
  • Radish
    • Fancy Red. C.H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, 3670 Buffalo Rd., Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Resistant to Fusarium yellows, also has field tolerance to black root (Aphanomyces) and Rhizoctonia. Seeds were offered for sale as of Nov. 1978. This new variety is red globe, matures in 25-28 days, and does very well under rather cool temperatures and adequate moisture. Compare to Cherrybelle; Red Prince. To be released. (Hasib S. Humaydan).
  • Snap Bean
    • 8BP-3. M.J. Silbernagel, USDA/SEA/AR IAREC, P.O. Box 30, Prosser, Wash. 99350. Small sieve, white seeded, bush with multiple disease resistance. Resistant to curly top virus, bean common mosaic virus, some strains of bean yellow mosaic virus, rust races 16 & 23, and anthracnose. Compare to Dutch types. To be released as a germplasm source.
  • Squash
    • Gold Striped Cushaw. (Mixta Gold, 1978). A.M. Rhodes, 206 Vegetable Crops Building, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801. Fruit mostly golden in color with underside green. Compare with Green Striped Cushaw. Advanced trial.
    • 8PC. C.H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, 3670 Buffalo Rd., Rochester, N.Y. 14624. High yields. Resists fruit greening caused by CMV. Yellow straightneck. First one or two true leaves are normally yellow. Compare to Seneca Prolific. To be released. (T. Superak).
    • GBPC. C.H. Cadregari. Very long, slim shape. Compare to Eldorado. Fruit color same as Eldorado. Good for processing, Advanced trial. (T. Superak).
    • WZ. C.H. Cadregari. Bush more open than standard white varieties. Fruit shape shorter and fatter than most zucchinis. Bush denser and more prickly than zucchini. Compare to White Bush Vegetable Marrow. Advanced trial. (T. Superak).
  • Sweet Corn
    • XP2513BC. Dennis B. Summers, P.O. Box 1235, Asgrow Research Center, Twin Falls, Idaho 83301. A very large eared and high quality bicolor hybrid for the home garden and roadside stand. Compare to Sweet Sue and Sweet Sal. Advanced trial.
    • XP2537. Dennis B. Summers. A mid-season large eared, high quality hybrid for home garden, roadside stand, and shipping. Compare to Jubilee, Gold Cup. Advanced trial.
    • Calico. Dennis B. Summers. A mid-season bicolor with exceptional early vigor and with very good quality. Compare to Sweet Sue and Sweet Sal. To be released.
    • Guardian. Dennis B. Summers. Excellent shipping corn with a wide range of environmental adaptability, outstanding disease tolerance. Compare to Bellringer, Bonanza. To be released.
    • XP2547BC. Dennis B. Summers. Early maturing 68-70 day bicolor hybrid with very large ear size for this maturity. Compare to Harmony. Advanced trial.
    • Bellegold (BE 1266). C.H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, 3670 Buffalo Rd., Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Replacement for Northern Belle with better eating quality. Some field tolerance to MDM, about the same as Bellringer. Compare to Northern Belle, Bellringer. Advanced trial. (E.W. Scott).
  • Tomato
    • Oregon Cherry. J.R. Baggett, Dept. of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331. Early determinate cherry tomato, medium dwarf plant. Compare to Small Fry. Two weeks earlier than Small Fry at Corvallis, smaller plant, may crack more than Small Fry. Released.
    • Oregon T5-4. J.R. Baggett. Parthenocarpic fruit set, extreme earliness. Germplasm for breeding early, small-fruited tomatoes. Released.
    • Ohio 7663. S. Berry, Dept. of Horticulture, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio 44691. Early, midseason, sets well at high limiting temperatures, I, u, sp, j-2, coreless, oval, MH. Compare to C.37. Released.
    • Ont 762. E.A. Kerr, Horticultural Experiment Station, Box 587, Simcoe, Ontario N3Y 4N5, Canada. I sp u ogc, 119 g, square firm, very good color, midseason, hand pick for product. Compare to Campbell 28. Advanced trial.
    • Ont 771. E.A. Kerr. I sp u, 104 g, oblate, crack resistant, very early, hand pick for juice, product, and market. Compare to New Yorker. Advanced trial.
    • Ont 778. E.A. Kerr. Ve I sp u ogc, 143 g, oblate, firm, crack resistant, early midseason, hand pick for product, juice and fresh market. Compare to Campbell 28. Advanced trial.
    • Ont 7710. E.A. Kerr. Ve I sp u j-2, 66 g, round firm, crack resistant, early, good flavor, resistant to bacterial speck, machine harvest for product, juice and whole pack. Compare to Heinz 1706. Advanced trial.
    • Ont 7714. E.A Kerr. I sp u j-2 ogc, 52 g, round, firm, crack resistant, very early, machine harvest for whole pack, juice or product. Compare to Heinz 1706. Advanced trial.
    • Ont 781. E.A. Kerr. I sp u ogc, 128 g, oblate, fairly firm and crack resistant, early midseason, hand pick for product. Compare to Campbell 28. Advanced trial.
    • Ont 787. E.A. Kerr. I sp u j-2 ogc, 71 g, round, firm, crack resistant, coreless, midseason, machine harvest for whole pack and product. Compare to Heinz 1706. Advanced trial.

5. Stocks Desired

Request from Vivian J. Holmes, Univ. of Connecticut, U-67, Plant Science, Storrs, Conn. 06268.

For Bell Pepper –Sweet – Capsicum: Early flowering, large bell, heavy flower set, heavy fruit set.

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Page citation: Wehner, T.C., Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative;
Created by T.C. Wehner and T. Ng, 1 June 2005; design by C.T. Glenn;
send questions to T.C. Wehner; last revised on 5 May, 2006