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Vegetable Improvement Newsletter

No. 24, February 1982

Compiled by H.M. Munger, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York


1. Responses to Spacing of Spacemaster Cucumber

H.M. Munger, R. Washek, and R.W. Riker

Departments of Plant Breeding and Vegetable Crops, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853

Spacemaster, essentially a dwarf version of Tablegreen 65, is characterized by a short hypocotyl in the seedling stage, short internodes, and early and profuse production of female flowers. We have obtained yield data on it for a number of years, when it was included in standard replicated trials of slicing cucumbers, with spacings of 6 feet between rows and 2 plants per hill in hills 2 feet apart in the row. In such trials, it has produced good early yields of marketable fruit, but after the first few pickings, the yields fall off drastically in contrast to cucumbers with standard vine size. Spacemaster appears to occupy only about half the row width at 6-foot spacings, suggesting that if the rows were closer together, the yields might be increased to a greater extent than would be the case for cucumbers with standard vines that occupy the full 6-foot width of the row.

Accordingly, a trial was set up in 1979 with spacings of 6, 4, and 2 feet between rows, with hills of 2 plants spaced 1.5 feet apart in the rows, and with the standard viney Pacer for comparison with Spacemaster.

Results are shown in Table 1, where number of marketable fruits per acre are reported for the first picking on August 27, and the total yields from 2 pickings concluding September 10. The soil was dry during the harvest period, and fruits were not developing rapidly. It was clear at the first picking date that the production of Pacer was increased more by close spacing than was true for Spacemaster. For this picking, the yields at the 4-foot spacing were not intermediate between the 6- and 2-foot spacings for either variety and an examination of the yields by individual replicates shows so much variability that no significance can be attached to this deviation from what one would expect. For the two picking combined, Pacer showed slightly more increase in yield from close spacings than did Spacemaster, with yields at the intermediate width being about what one would expect from the extremes of spacing.

It appeared that Spacemaster might not have responded to close spacing because of lack of moisture in the soil, and therefore the experiment was repeated in 1980, in a location where irrigation could be provided. As it happened there was ample rainfall and moisture did not seem to be a limiting factor at any time during the growth of this planting. One replicate was lost as a result of late frost in June, and results from two replicates are given in Table 2. In this situation, Spacemaster gave a higher average yield than Pacer in the early pickings, but at the closest spacing, Spacemaster did not show a great advantage over Pacer, and this advantage disappeared in the later pickings.  Contrary to expectation, the early yields of Spacemaster were increased by only about 50% by tripling the number of plants, whereas yields of Pacer increased about 3-fold.  Also contrary to expectation, the yield advantage of high density was maintained or increased throughout the harvest period for both varieties. The percentage of culls was much higher in Spacemaster than in Pacer but surprisingly similar for the three spacings and showing no clear trend through the picking season.

These data are limited but obtained under very different growing conditions with respect to soil moisture. In neither situation do they support the general idea that dwarf plants will show more advantage from increased density of planting than cucumbers with standard vines.

Table 1. Marketable yields in 1979 of cucumbers in rows 6, 4, and 2 feet apart with 2 plants per hill and hills 1.5 feet apart in the rows. Averages for 3 replicates at Ithaca, N.Y.

Variety
Spacing
Thousands of marketable fruits per acre - 8/27
Thousands of marketable fruits per acre- 8/27+9/10
Culls as % of total yield
Plants/A
Spacemaster
1.5' x 6'
4.4
13.5
37
9,680
Spacemaster
1.5' x 4'
5.4
18.5
36
14,520
Spacemaster
1.5' x 2'
3.3
24.2
40
29,040
Pacer
1.5' x 6'
2.1
19.2
11
9,680
Pacer
1.5' x 4'
1.5
31.2
10
14,520
Pacer
1.5' x 2'
5.1
41.1
15
29,040

Table 2. Marketable yields in 1980 of cucumbers in rows 6, 4, and 2 feet apart with 2 plants per hill and hills 1.5 feet apart in the rows. Averages for 2 replicates at Ithaca, N.Y.

Thousands of marketable fruits per acre through:
Variety
Spacing
8/11
8/15
8/19
8/22
8/25
8/28
9/3
Culls as % of total yield
Spacemaster
1.5' x 6'
7.3
10.5
15.3
19.4
23.0
26.2
29.4
51
Spacemaster
1.5' x 4'
5.4
10.3
15.1
26.6
30.9
39.9
48.4
42
Spacemaster
1.5' x 2'
9.1
16.3
24.2
33.9
40.5
46.6
54.4
53
Pacer
1.5' x 6'
2.0
3.6
6.0
11.3
12.9
21.4
33.9
23
Pacer
1.5' x 4'
2.4
7.9
13.9
19.4
26.6
40.5
58.7
14
Pacer
1.5' x 2'
7.9
13.3
21.2
35.7
43.6
56.3
74.4
23

2. Uncatalogued Vegetable Varieties Available for Trial in 1982

This list is aimed at facilitating the exchange of information about potential new varieties, or new varieties which have not yet appeared in catalogues. Persons conducting vegetable variety trials who wish seed of items on this list should request samples from the sources indicated.

It is the responsibility of the person sending out seed to specify that it is for trial only, or any other restriction he may want to place on its use.

Crops are listed alphabetically. For each entry the following information is given: Designation, source of trial samples, outstanding characteristics, variety suggested for comparison (not given separately if mentioned in description), status of variety (preliminary trial, advanced trial, to be released, or released) and contributor of information if different from source of trial samples. Where several samples are listed consecutively from on source, the address is given only for the first.

  • Beet
    • Garden, Hybrid B. T. Superak, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Maintains green top color all season and matures early with uniformity. Compare to Crosby Green Top. To be released. (R.O. Wilkins).
  • Cucumber
    • Marketmore 80-3. H.M. Munger, Departments of Plant Breeding and Vegetable Crops, 410 Bradfield Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14853. A sub-line of Marketmore 80 (non-bitter, PMR) which has been earlier and more productive than composite originally sent for trial. Compare to Marketmore 76, Marketmore 70. To be released.
    • Pickle. 9R11. T. Superak, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Tolerance to CMV, mildews, target leafspot. Resistance to scab. Compare to Carolina. Preliminary trial. (R.C. Dumlao).
    • Pickle. 4J89. T. Superak. Early, blunt ends, holds shape longer than other cultivars. Scab resistant. CMV and mildew tolerant. Compare to Calypso. Advanced trial. (R.C. Dumlao).
    • Slicer. LMHP. T. Superak. Smooth skin, almost no seed cavity, partly parthenocarpic, good shoulder. Scab resistant. CMV tolerant. Compare to LaReine. Advanced trial. (R.C. Dumlao).
    • Slicer. GMUS. T. Superak. Early, concentrated setting. Uniform color gene. Scab resistant. Tolerant to mildews, ALS, and CMV. Compare to Raider. Advanced trial. (R.C. Dumlao).
    • Slicer. Castlehy 2506. Fred Angell, A.L. Castle, Inc., P.O. Box 279, Hollister, CA 95023. Early maturing, slicing hybrid. Fruits are straight, cylindrical and uniform dark glossy green. Seed cavity small and flesh is crisp. Mature fruit size is 8-1/2 -9” x 2-1/4- 2- ½”. Tolerant to CMV, scab, downy and powdery mildew and ALS. Compare to Raider. To be released.
    • Pickle. Castlehy 2012. Fred Angell. Small-vined pickling hybrid. Produces high yields of white spine, dark green, blocky, medium length fruits. Tolerant to downy and powdery mildew, scab and CMV. To be released.
    • Pickle. Castlehy 2013. Fred Angell. Hybrid pickling cucumber with medium, vigorous vine. Fruits are medium dark green, blocky, white spine with small seed cavity and firm flesh. Medium to long fruit (L/D-3.1). Tolerant to northern and southern disease complexes. Compare to Calypso. Advanced trial.
  • Eggplant
    • Beauty Hybrid. Jon Watterson, Petoseed Research Center, Rt. 4, Box 1255, Woodland, CA 95695. Productive, round fruited, dark purple. Compare to Black Bell. To be released.
  • Onion
    • Blanco Duro. Rick Watson, Dessert Seed Co., Inc., 8850 59th Ave., NE, Brooks, OR 97305-0008. High yielding, white globe with outstanding storage quality. Not prone to greening of outer fleshy scales. Compare to Southport White Globe. Released.
    • Avalanche. Rick Watson. High yielding white Spanish type hybrid. Large size and good storage quality. Compare to White Sweet Spanish. Released.
    • D5537p. T. Superak, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. High yield. Main season yellow globe. Compare to Sentinel. To be released.
  • Pea
    • Erectset. John L. Bowers, Dept. of Horticulture & Forestry, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701. Southern pea with concentrated pod set in an erect position. It possesses the concentrated pod set character, easy to hand harvest, resistant to bacterial blight and nematodes. Compare with Texas Cream 40, AR193. Advanced trial.
    • AR193. John L. Bowers. Southern pea with concentrated pod set, erect position. Bacterial blight resistant. Compare to Pinkeye Purple Hull. Released.
  • Pepper
    • CA. T. Superak, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Long frying type, sweet prolific. Compare to Cubanelle. Advanced trial. (R.C. Dumlao).
    • FRAY. T. Superak. Sweet pepper, bell type with tolerance to TMV, TEV, and PVY (specific strain). Compare to Citadel. Advanced trial. (R.C. Dumlao).
  • Squash
    • Zucchini. 81-2225. Paul Yorty, Musser Seed Co., P.O. Box 1406, Twin Falls, ID 83301. High yield, golden glossy fruits which separate easily from plants. Compare to Gold Rush F1. Preliminary trial.
    • 3493. A.M. Rhodes, Vegetable Crops, University of Illinois, 1103 W. Dorner Dr., Urbana, IL 61801. C. moschata. The precocious B gene from bicolor gourd of C. pepo has been transferred to C. moschata germplasm (BC6). During transfer it was necessary to substitute the green skin of C. moschata (PI 169413) for the tan color of ‘Butternut’, because the tan color masks the B gene effect at maturity. Line homozygous for color with bell-shaped fruit. Released as breeding line in 1981.
    • 3500. A.M. Rhodes. C. moschata. The precocious B gene from squash of C. maxima (PI 16558) has been transferred to C. moschata germplasm (BC6). See above for green skin substitution for tan. Line is still segregating for yellow and tan color; all bell-shaped fruit, but variable. Released as breeding line in 1981.
  • Sweet Corn
    • SX 1009. T. Superak, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Outstanding characteristics of sweetness and yield. Requires isolation. 76 days. Compare to Wondersweet. Advanced trial. (J.D. Mackenzie).
    • PVX 100. T. Superak. Has MDM virus resistance. 87 days. Compare to Jubilee. Advanced trial. (J.D. Mackenzie).
    • AX 409 “Sweet Gene Hybrid” T. Superak. Increased sweetness without any isolation requirement. 81 days. Compare to Gold Cup. Advanced trial. (J.D. Mackenzie).
    • Illinois AES Inbreds. A.M. Rhodes, Vegetable Crops, University of Illinois, 1103 W. Dorner Dr., Urbana, IL 61801. Eleven inbreds homozygous for genes sugary (su) and sugary enhancer (se). Released as breeding lines in 1982.
    • Marada. Dennis B. Summers, Asgrow Research Center, P.O. Box 1235, Twin Falls, ID 83301. A widely adapted full season yellow hybrid for shipping and roadside stands. Possesses an extremely attractive husked ear. Compare to Bonanza. To be released.
    • Calico King. Dennis B. Summers. A very large eared bicolor hybrid with excellent kernel quality. Compare to Sweet Sue. To be released.
    • Spring Calico. Dennis B. Summers. An early maturing 68-70 day, extremely vigorous bicolor hybrid with very large ear size for this maturity. Compare to Harmony. To be released.
    • Merak. Dennis B. Summers. A mid-season yellow hybrid having excellent kernel style, tender pericarp and sweet flavor. Compare to Bellringer. To be released.
    • Silver Chief. Dennis B. Summers. A full season white hybrid with very good kernel quality. Husked ears are long, cylindrical and with attractive rowing. Compare to Silver Queen. To be released.
  • Tomato
    • Castlehy 1054. Fred Angell, A.L. Castle, Inc., P.O. Box 279, Hollister, CA 95023. Medium, compact, determinate vine. Jointless fruits are globe, very firm, medium-large, smooth, uniform ripening. VF1 & 2, S resistance. Hybrid. Compare to Pik-Red. Advanced trial.
    • Castlehy 1510. Fred Angell. Early hybrid processing tomato. Compact, determinate vine. Fruits are globe, firm, uniform ripening with good color and vine storage. 14 fruits/kilo. Resistant to cracking, Verticillium and Fusarium Race 1. Compare to Early Red Rock. Advanced trial.
    • Castlex 1632. Fred Angell. Early processing tomato, small, compact vine. Fruits are deep globe to plum, firm, uniform ripening. Jointless, excellent vine storage. Resistant to Verticillium and Fusarium Race 1. Compare to US68. Advanced trial.
    • Castlehy 1067. Fred Angell. Hybrid cherry tomato with medium determinate vine. Jointless. Fruits are deep globe, firm, 1-1-1/4” in diameter, deep red color with excellent flavor. Resistant to Verticillium and Fusarium Race 1. Advanced trial.
    • OSU T11. J.R. Baggett, Horticulture Dept., Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331.  Extremely early, 2” tomato, with strong tendency for parthenocarpic fruit. May be released as germplasm, but possibly as a cultivar. Prostrate plant, but fruit has good flavor. Cracking sometimes occurs. Compare to Early Subarctic. Advanced trial.
    • Ohio 7868. S.Z. Berry, OARDC, Wooster, Ohio 44691. I, Ve, sp, u. ogc, main season. Fruit oval, 3 oz. size, hand or machine harvest. For wholepack and product. Compare to C37. Advanced trial.
    • Ohio 7870. S.Z. Berry. I, Ve, sp, u, main season. Fruit oval, 3-1/2 oz. size. Hand or machine harvest. For wholepack and product. Compare to C37. Released.
    • Ohio 7681. S.Z. Berry. I, Ve, sp, u, early-main season. Fruit blocky, deep globe. 4 oz. size, hand or machine harvest. For juice or product. Compare to C37. Released.
  • Turnip
    • Royal Gem. T. Superak, Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Moreton Farm, Rochester, N.Y. 14624. Combines resistances to Fusarium yellows, clubroot (race 6), black-root, and root scurf.  More uniform and a week earlier than Purple Top White Globe. Can be used for either greens or roots. Variety protection certificate applied for. Compare to Purple Top White Globe. To be released. (H. Humaydan).

3. Stocks Desired

Request from: J.H. Curme, Agr. Research Dept., The Pillsbury Company, Le Sueur, MN 56058.

Crop: beans, P. vulgaris
Characteristic: Hooked trichomes, lending some degree of insect larva inhibition.

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Page citation: Wehner, T.C., Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative;
Created by T.C. Wehner and T. Ng, 1 June 2005; design by C.T. Glenn;
send questions to T.C. Wehner; last revised on 5 May, 2006