Vegetable Improvement Newsletter
No. 8, February 1966
Compiled by H.M. Munger, Cornell University,
Ithaca, New York
1. Guidelines For Naming Vegetable Varieties
The Vegetable Breeding and Variety Committee of the A.S.H.S.
at the annual meeting held at Urbana, August 1966, approved
four guidelines for naming new vegetable varieties. Voluntary
acceptance and application of these suggestions could lead
to improved clarity in variety naming, reduce chances for
confusion and perhaps obviate any need for additional governmental
The four suggestions on naming varieties are:
- Discontinue the use of the term "Hybrid" as
a functional part of a variety name.
- Use numbers for breeding lines only and apply a word
name when the line is released for sale or formally introduced.
- Keep variety names as short as possible by avoiding
- Discourage use of trade names as part of the formal
The Garden Seed Research Committee of the A.S.T.A. has
endorsed the first three guidelines and urge their consideration
by all vegetable breeders. This committee was reluctant
to endorse the fourth suggestion since this has been a common
practice among commercial seed firms.
Using the term "Hybrid" as a formal part of the
name is unnecessary and can lead to confusion. For example,
Challenger Hybrid is the official name of this
popular cucumber variety and it could be possible for another
variety either hybrid or not to be named Challenger.
If this happened confusion could arise in two ways: (1)
the idea would tend to prevail that the second variety resembled
the first and (2) identification could become difficult
because of the tendency for people to abbreviate the Challenger
Hybrid name to Challenger. The same factors can lead to
confusion when the term "Hybrid" is added to the
name of an established variety like Rutgers or Pearson.
Such confusion could result in harm to growers especially
if the two varieties are quite distinct in type or performance.
In several crops such as sweet corn and onions, use of the
term "Hybrid" in names already has been almost
It is often difficult to distinguish between advanced breeding
lines and formally released lines when numbers and especially
the same numbers are used for both. It is also easier, in
general, for people to correctly recall the names than numbers
especially when three digits or more are involved. This
guideline need not conflict with the practice of adding
numbers (usually simple ones of one or two digits) to standard
names to indicate improvement in an older variety.
Trade names become awkward in making recommendations, especially
when the variety is available from only one source as is
the case for many hybrids with closed pedigrees. Also, chance
for confusion increases when several new varieties of one
crop appear with very similar names or the same name is
used in naming varieties of several different crops, especially
if they are introduced within a fairly short time interval.
A feeling prevails among seedsmen and other people interested
in the vegetable seed industry that unless voluntary policing
of variety naming can eliminate problem situations, some
initiation of government regulation may be forthcoming.
Most people prefer the voluntary procedure so let us make
2. Bees in Pollination Cages
Last year we reported on placing bees in pollination cages
with hive openings outside as well as into the cages. Broccoli
within flight distance of cabbage cages created no problem.
One questionable incident involves monoecious cucumbers
immediately adjacent to a cage of gynoecious where pollen
was in short supply. Thus it now appears the practice is
safe so long as foreign pollen is not available immediately
adjacent to the cages. This method prevents much of the
loss of feeder bees that occurs when colonies are restricted
to the cage area and permits a near normal feeding territory
for the hive. Strong hives have been used whereas such would
be tragic if confined.
3. Inheritance of Resistance to Race 1 and 2 of Downy
Mildew in Broccoli
M.H. Dickson and J.J. Natti
Resistance to downy mildew race 1 was earlier found by
Natti to be due to a single dominant gene. The resistance
was obtained from P.I. 189028. When resistant progeny were
grown in the field some plants were again found infected
with mildew. On testing this was found to be a race different
to the original and was called race 2.
P.I.'s 245015 and 231210 were found to contain resistance
to both race 1 and 2. The resistance to race 2 not being
as good as for race 1. In crossing with a broccoli line
CR it was apparent that the double resistance was due to
two single independent dominant genes as shown in the following
|145-1 x CR
|CR x 145-1
Small samples of F2 seed segregating for resistance
are available to brassica breeders.
4. Clubroot Resistant Cauliflower and Cabbage Breeding
Material Available from the University of Maryland
Ninety-one Brassica oleraceae plant introductions
obtained from the USDA Plant Introduction Station at Geneva,
N.Y. were subjected to infestation of Plasmodophora
brassicae (Wor.) under greenhouse and field conditions.
Of the plant introduction material the following lines either
segregated for resistance or were not badly clubbed: PI
183213 (cauliflower?), PI 208474 (cauliflower), PI 208484
(cauliflower), PI 232070 (cauliflower), PI 236257 (Var.
Viridis), PI 236258 (Var. Viridis), PI 236259 (Var. Viridis),
PI 250127 (cauliflower?), PI 250423 (cabbage) and PI 261642
(cabbage). Many P.I. numbers received as cauliflower were
found to be intermediate Brassica oleraceae types.
For this reason a question mark follows the Brassica
type in certain cases.
Lines received from other sources are listed in Table 1.
Cabbage lines B 1 and B 11 were practically immune to clubroot
and were originally obtained from Walker and Larson of the
University of Wisconsin. F1 progenies from these
resistant lines crossed with highly susceptible cauliflower
lines, segregated resistant and susceptible plants. The
percentage of resistant plants in the B 1 crosses was 64%
in the B 11 crosses it was 46%. In backcrosses and selfed
progenies involving B1 and susceptible cauliflower, a high
degree of resistance was maintained (Table 2). In 13 crosses
where both parent lines were susceptible to clubroot, all
F1 progeny were susceptible.
As a result of this testing work, 23 lines carrying alleles
for clubroot resistance and cabbage and cauliflower types
are available to all qualified plant breeders. These lines
for distribution are listed in Table 3. When requesting
seeds, it is necessary only to give the Maryland line number.
Table 1. Sources and Brassica types of Maryland
Inst. of Plant Breeding, Wageningen
F1 8353T Larson- 55202
F2 (Z1 - M1) 55158
Fz1 Wisc. Golden Acre 54147
F2 ( 1 - M1) 55169
Alpha Vreeken 55175
Var. x A No. 235
Munger, Cornell University
(Cabbage x Kale)
54-83-3 x Early Cab.
Walker, Univ. of Wisconsin
Harris Seed Company
Table 2. Numbers of diseased and healthy plants in backcross
and selfed progenies involving resistant B 1 cabbage and
(B 1 x B 8) Self
Seg. Caulif. Types
(B 1 x B 8) B 8
(B 1 x B 8)
B 8 (Check)
Table 3. List of University of Maryland breeding lines
segregating for clubroot resistance and cauliflower and/or
other Brassica types.
||Bx-59-6 x #2
||(B 1 x 55175) x Md. Resist. Hybrid
||Bx-59-6 x #3
||(B 1 x 55175) x 55175
||Bx-59-6 x #4
||(B 11 x 55175) x 55175
||Bx-59-6 x #5
||(B 1 x 55175) S1
||Bx-59-6 x #6
||(B 2 x 55175) S1
||Bx-59-6 x #8
||(B 11 x 55175) S1
||Bx-59-6 x #9
||(Md. Resistant Hybrid) S1
||Bx-59-10 x #1
||(Md. Resistant Hybrid) Snowball Imp.
||Bx-59-15 x #1
||(B 1 x P.I. 209751) S1
||59-6 x Snowball Imperial x #3
||(B 1 x P.I. 209756) S1
||59-6 x Snowball Imperial x #5
||(B 1 x P.I. 209757) S1
||Bx-59-14 x Snowball Imperial
5. Evidence for Genetic Tendencies in Carrot Splitting
Department of Horticulture, Washington State University,
Seed from two self-pollinated split carrot
roots (SP631 and SP632) of the Red-Cored Chantenay variety
was planted at two locations in eastern Washington in plots
paired with plots planted from bulked seed from the same
source. Roots were thinned to at least 8 inches in order
to increase the opportunity from splitting. The percentage
of splitting, based on number of roots, which occurred in
the progeny of the split roots compared to the percentage
in paired check plots in as follows:
For both progenies the percentage of split roots was statistically
greater at the 5% level the percentage for the check.
Within the 1965 carrot variety trial in eastern Washington,
Red-Cored Chantenay selections from 3 different companies
were grown. The percentage of splitting based on weight
was 11.4, 18.2, and 28.2 respectively for the 3 selections.
The third value is statistically greater than either the
first or second . Variation in the percentage of splitting
among the other varieties in the trial was in many instances
This data suggests that there is a heritable factor which
predisposes carrots to splitting. Work is presently underway
to attempt to identify chemical differences associated with
the tendency to split. Also a number of sound, well-shaped,
Red-Cored Chantenay roots have been saved as the beginning
of a program to select a line with roots which have less
of a tendency to split.
6. Natural Cross Pollination in the Cucumber.
R. W. Robinson and W. Mischance
N.Y. State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New
Individual cucumber plants, recessive for the glabrous
(gal) gene, were planted in a large field of normal plants.
The glabrous plants were at least 25 feet from each other,
making cross-pollination between them unlikely. Progeny
from these plants, therefore, should be glabrous if produced
by self-pollination and normal if cross pollinated. Some
of the glabrous plants were andromonoecious and others monoecious,
making it possible to study the influence of sex type on
the extent of natural cross-pollination.
We expected the amount of self-pollination with monoecious
plants to be similar to the amount reported in the literature,
approximately 30-35 percent, and surmised there would be
more self-pollination with the andromonoecious plants, Surprisingly,
however, there was 100% cross-pollination with both sex
types. The 112 plants in the open-pollinated progeny of
3 monoecious parents were all normal as were the 63 plants
from 2 andromonoecious parents; none of the progeny was
Glabrous plants have proven fertile in controlled pollinations
and have occurred in expected ratios in segregating generations.
There is no reason to believe the apparent lack of natural
self-pollination was due to differential fertility or viability.
Apparently there may be a greater amount of natural cross-pollination
of cucumbers than previously suspected.
7. Angular Leafspot Resistance of Cucumber
Clemson University Truck Experiment Station, Charleston,
Limited tests in 1965 indicate that the angular leafspot
resistance discovered in S.C. breeding cucumbers in 1964
was derived largely, if not entirely, from P.I. 197087.
This one introduction has become the source of resistance
to anthracnose and angular leafspot plus genes for a greater
degree of resistance to downy and powdery mildews. Unfortunately
it also carried genes for susceptibility to low temperature,
gummy stem blight and carpel separation.
8. Cucumber Breeding Notes
John L. Bowers and J.E. Wyatt
Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville,
Expression of the gynoecious character in two-way crosses
- The 1965 field notes on 14 different two-way cross hybrids,
involving a common gynoecious parent showed approximately
50 per cent of the plants were gynoecious in sex expression
and the other 50 per cent were classified as monoecious
types. These two-way crosses were obtained by selecting
F1 plants which expressed a strong gynoecious
character and crossing these with an unrelated pollinator.
Polyploidy - Twenty-nine selfed and sibbed fruits
were harvested from 41 plants out of one of the more fertile
selections in the S2 generation of a tetraploid
grown in the greenhouse. The average number of good seed
per fruit was 32.7 and the range was from 9 to 81 good seed
per fruit. Several tetraploid-diploid crosses and the average
number of good seed per fruit was only 3.2. There was an
average of 83 normal size seed without embryos per fruit.
One fruit from the tetraploid-diploid cross contained 31
good seed. Although the number of good seed from tetraploid
selfs and tetraploid-diploid crosses is low, there has been
improvement made through selection from more fertile types.
Relationship between carpel separation in green stock
and bloaters in brine stock - The No.3 and No. 4, fruit
sizes from the variety trial plots at both Fayetteville
and Hope, Arkansas were used to study the degree of association
between carpel separation in green stock and bloater count
in brine stock. The significant coefficient of correlation
(r) of +.42 indicates a close association between these
two factors but it would not be useful as a predictive value.
Male sterility - A generic study was undertaken
in 1964 to determine the inheritance of the male sterile
character in cucumbers and investigate the possibility of
using this character to produce F1 hybrids. Male
sterile plants from several lines were crossed with Pixie,
SC 10, and SC 16D, which are not known to exhibit male sterility,
and the F2's grown in field in the summer of
1965. A backcross population (F1 x ms) was also
grown for another genetic test.
Data indicates that male sterility is determined by a single
recessive gene. The F3 population segregated
in the expected 3:1 ratio while the backcross population
(Ms ms x ms ms) segregated in the expected 1:1 ratio.
One difficulty which has been encountered is the lack of
seed production in male sterile plants. Further work is
now being carried out and it is hoped that this problem
may be overcome by backcrossing, although the seedlessness
may be due to pleiotropism of the single ms gene or linkage
of male and female sterility genes.
9. Carpel Separation in Pickling Cucumbers
Carpel separation in pickling cucumbers has been found
to be a genetically controlled character, the expression
of which is greatly influences by growth factor. A few of
the old varieties sow very little under certain conditions
and none under others. P.I. 196289, used to obtain high
resistance to race 2 anthracnose, produced fruit with a
very small, slowly developing seed cavity. This has been
a most difficult character to retain in the development
of multiple disease resistant pickles, however some of the
S.C. 601-609 series crosses appear most promising. Several
of them were free of carpel separation in 1965 even though
other entries contained a higher than usual percentage of
fruits with this defect. The seed cavity of most of these
is quite small and the seeds slow to develop. This will
permit the production of size 4 pickles that will be as
acceptable for pickle production as size 3 fruits of current
varieties. The first brine test on these lines will be read
shortly and it will be interesting to correlate the internal
structure with bloating. Release of these cucumbers is planned
for two years hence provided brining and seed increase trials
10. Gynoecious 3 Pickle Cucumber To Be Released
Clemson University, Asgrow Seed Company and a group of
cooperating Southern Pickle Packers plan to release Gy 3
and a pollinator, S.C. 10, to primary seed growers this
spring. This will permit the increase of these two items
in 1966 and production of hybrid seed of 3 X S.C. 10 and
3 X SMR 18 in 1967. Gy 3 has good resistance to downy and
powdery mildews, anthracnose, angular leafspot and cucumber
mosaic virus. S.C. 10 has high resistance to downy and powdery
mildew and anthracnose and fairly good resistance to angular
leafspot. The 3 x 10 hybrid will be highly resistant to
downy and powdery mildew and anthracnose and frilly good
to angular leafspot and cucumber mosaic virus. The 3 x SMR
18 cross will be highly resistant to scab, more resistant
than the pollen parent to cucumber mosaic virus and moderately
resistant to downy mildew, anthracnose and angular leafspot.
Small quantities may be sampled to cucumber breeders.
11. Behavior of Gene B in Cucurbita
Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey
I. Cucurbita pepo - Gene B was originally studied
in relation to the bicolor fruit pattern of the ornamental
gourds. This gene is unstable in commercial stocks but stable
forms of B can be obtained. It was subsequently observed
that gene B is associated with precocious fruit
pigmentation, i.e.,. in the presence of B, yellow
fruits. And forms of B which act later, but still
at pre-anthesis stages, are associated with bicolor fruits.
Although the presence of B is essential for the manifestation
of the bicolor pattern this characteristic is affected by
fruit polarity, fruit shape, temperature, light, and virus
Further observations: (1) Mature leaves of standard bb
inbreds exhibit distinct yellow spots at a frequency of
about 0.1 per leaf when these inbreds are grown early in
spring in New Jersey; 92) In some BB inbreds, grown
under the same conditions, the frequency of spots per leaf
is significantly higher, about 4.0, but in other BB
inbreds, this frequency is about 0.1; (3) BB plants
of some genetic backgrounds are transformed completely from
green to yellow when these plants are grown early in spring
in New Jersey but BB inbreds of other genetic backgrounds
as well as all tested bb inbreds are resistant to transformation
under the same conditions. Controlled experiments suggest
that low temperatures, 60°F or lower, are conducive
to spotting and transformations (Amer. Hort. Mag. 44; 184-201.
1965; see also errata in the forthcoming 1966 issue of A.H.M.)
II. Cucurbita maxima - Several P.I. introductions
of Cucurbita maxima from India and Africa bear
uniformly precocious-yellow fruits. They were first observed
in the garden of the Plant Introduction Station at Geneva,
New York. The data obtained from the cross between "Buttercup',
representing standard fruit pigmentation, and 'P.I. 165558',
representing precocious pigmentation being dominant. This
dominant gene is designated by symbol Bma
mayor may not be homologous to B but it appears as a case
of "parallel variation".
'Buttercup', bmabma, behaves
as bb inbreds of Cucurbita pepo in exhibiting a low incidence
of leaf spots (0.1spots per leaf) under favorable conditions
and in being resistant to transformation. Under favorable
conditions of low temperature, 'P.I.16558', BmaBma,
exhibits considerably higher incidence of leaf spots (over
50 spots per leaf, and stronger tendency for transformation
than nay plant transformation is not yet known but this
is little doubt that, in a favorable environment, these
manifestations are brought about through interaction between
Bma and one or more other genes.
III. Questions - Is precocious fruit pigmentation
due to a mutation of b (or bma)
to B (or Bma)? Are plant
transformation and precocious fruit pigmentation due to
the same physiological mechanism? Is spotting an aspect
of transformation? Do BmaBma
cultivars exhibit leaf spotting and plant transformation
in tropical India and Africa? What was the selective advantage
of Bma in India and Africa?
IV. Applied - Gene B is useful in breeding bicolor
ornamental gourds. In addition, gene B appears
to be associated with early fruiting and strong female tendency
in some genetic backgrounds but this impression should be
checked critically. BB fruits are slenderer and
often shorter than genetically comparable bb fruits. The
flesh of BB fruits is intensely orange in the presence
of genes for a relatively high rate of pigment accumulation.
However, the value of B and Bma for
breeding edible cultivars should be weighed by results of
nutritional studies of genetically comparable BB
(or BmaBma) and bb
(or bmabma) fruits.
It might be useful to test the relative disease and insect
tolerance of 'P.I. 16558' in comparison with our own maxima
12. Evaluation of Some Muskmelon Varieties and Determining
the suitable Spacing for Their Production
Zidan E. Aldel-Al
Alexandria University, Alexandria, U.A.R.
In the United Arab Republic there is an urgent need to
look for new exportable vegetable crops. Muskmelon is one
of these new promising crops. In 1963, a variety trial carried
out at Alexandria University Farm mainly for seed 34 varieties.
The results indicated that the vines of Pennsweet, Honey
Dew and Rouw's remained green throughout the entire growing
season. These varieties were found to tolerate the powdery
mildew infections. On March 1964 a total of 8 varieties
were considered for further variety trials. The selection
of these varieties was based on their relatively high sweetness
and tolerance to powdery mildew. the experiment was designed
as a split plot design. The varieties were considered as
main plots. There were three spacings among plants, i.e.
20,40, and 60 cm, in the sub-plots. Data on early and total
yields, fruit size, sweetness, and powdery mildew infections
were recorded. The results indicated that Honey Dew, Arizona
Sunrise, Rouw's Pennsweet and Honey Rock gave greater yield
than any other varieties. The 20 x 120 cm spacings gave
the highest yield. Close spacings tended to give relatively
smaller fruit size than wide spacings. High yielding varieties
were also found to be sweeter than low yielding varieties
except for Honey Rock.
13. Studies On The Possibilities of Using Gamma Radiation
to Induce Mutation in Okra (Hibiscus esculentus
Zidan E. Aldel-Al
Alexandria University, Alexandria, U.A.R.
Seeds of the variety Large Green of okra were used in this
study. This variety has some genetic characters, such as
tall stem, shallow lobed leaves, shaped in the rest of the
pod. Seeds were exposed to 0, 5000, 7500, 10000, and 12500
r of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 at Inshas Atomic Energy
establishment. The seeds of the different treatment were
seeded in March 1964 to produce the first radiated generation
(R1 ). Several mutants were isolated in the R1
in 1964 and 1965 for progeny test. The progeny test indicated
that all the mutants bred true.
It was possible to use gamma radiation to obtain mutants
that differed in one or more of the following characters:
- Deep lobed leaves
- Purple or red petioles
- Red stem
- Ridged pods
- Spiny pods
- Short stem
- Early and late flowering
The significance of this study would help in providing
materials to understand the inheritance of some characters
in okra and in studying the effect of a single gene on some
Some of the mutants will be further tested for the possibility
of commercial release.
14. A Possible Clue to Variable Seed Setting in Onions
H.M. Munger and P.R. Dawson
Plant Breeding Department, Cornell University, Ithaca,
Male sterile onions in isolated crossing blocks have frequently
set seed poorly, and occasionally fertile onions have done
the same. We have usually blamed this on unfavorable weather
or diseases, but observations in 1965 indicated that other
factors must be involved, at least in some plantings.
In one crossing block at Freeville, N.Y., Iowa 2997 showed
nearly a twenty-fold variation in seed set on the pollen
rows within a block about 25 x 100 feet in size. The bulbs
were a single lot grown at Greeley, Colorado, and all planted
the same day on an excellent and very uniform soil. The
first row of 67 bulbs, two feet from a roadside strip of
grass and weeds, produced about 0.7 grams of seed per plant.
The center row of the pollinator, separated from the first
by three rows of male steriles, produced about 0.1 grams
per plant on 70 plants. The third pollination row, separated
from the second by three rows of male steriles, produced
0.04grams per plant on 57 plants. Six plants at the end
of this row were harvested separately because they appeared
to have more seed and they yielded 1.0 gram per plant. At
the end of the six plants with more seed was a cabbage plant
which flowered at about the same time. A conspicuously better
seed set was observed on the end plants of 3 adjacent male-sterile
rows which also had cabbage plants at the row ends.
Beyond the last pollinator row was one more male-sterile
row which had poor seed set except on the last 20 feet which
had a row of celery producing seed next to it.
The superior seed set adjacent to the roadside, the cabbage
plants, and the celery plants suggests that insect activity
on the onions may have been influenced by nearby plants.
Observations on other isolated blocks substantiates this.
we had unusually good seed set on N.Y. 15-41 pollinator
rows in a location which has usually been unfavorable but
which had a block of carrots flowering adjacent to the onions
in 1965. We had a near failure on pollen rows of B2215 which
made excellent growth in a location where we have usually
had good seed yields, but where in 1965, contrary to the
usual situation, we had no other biennial vegetables set
out for seed production along with the onions.
We are wondering if it would improve onion seed yields
to spot at intervals through the fields some other plants
with flowers more attractive to insects. We plan to try
carrots for this purpose in 1966.
15. Water Absorption Capacity of Pea Seeds Used to Identify
Experimental Farm, Brandon, Manitoba
Peas with wrinkled seeds of the "classical" rr
type differ from round seeded types in several characteristics
which render them more palatable to man, when used in immature
stage. A type of pea with wrinkled seed reported by Kooistra
and by Marshall differed genetically from the classical
type. If it is assumed that factors for edibility in peas
are associated with both the "classical" and "new"
types of wrinkled seed, it is possible that a new, sweeter,
more tender type of pea could be derived from double genetic
combination. Identification of a genotype by morphologic
means would be impossible because of similarity of seed
shape in the two single and in the double gene combination.
Differences in the water absorption capacity of mature
pea seeds were found between lines or varieties within each
of four genetically different seed types, round, wrinkled,
new wrinkled and "double" wrinkled, but differences
between three of these classes were large and consistent.
The absorption indices obtained by soaked weight / dry
Round and dimpled
1.95 - 2.07
New wrinkled a
New wrinkled b
Doubled wrinkled a
2.57 - 2.81
Doubled wrinkled b
Both the new wrinkled and double wrinkled classes were
bimodal with the larger group having the higher absorption
index. The new wrinkled class may be identified by its simple
oval starch grains. The other two wrinkled classes absorb
different amounts of water before germination.
Differences in water absorption capacity were positively
correlated with differences in sugar content of immature
peas. They were also negatively correlated with seed weight
in lines with the genes for new wrinkled. Immature seeds
of the double wrinkled class contained an average of more
than1 percent more sugar than the classical wrinkled class.
16. Probable Origin Of New Wrinkled Gene in Peas
The new wrinkled gene seems to have originated with variety
Alsweet (Alaska Sweet, Cansweet, early Green Pod, Pacemaker,
Rocket or Minnesota Early Sweet). Alaska is said to be one
of its parents but the other parent could not be stated.
Alaska and Alsweet are remarkably alike in all characters
except seed shape. In a cross between these varieties, simple
3:1 segregation in seed shape was the only segregation found.
This may be contrasted with complicated ratios for segregation
in seed type alone in other crosses with Minnesota Early
Sweet. This suggests that Alsweet was probably a sport to
a new wrinkled type from the variety Alaska.
17. "Redgold" (NH#7) Squash
E.M. Meader and Lih Hung
Plant Science Department, University of New Hampshire,
Durham, New Hampshire
In 1956, Tetsukabuto, a commercial F1 hybrid
of Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata. from
Takii & Co., Ltd., Seed Growers, Hyota, Japan, yielded
many 5-pound oblate dark green squashes at Durham, N.H.
that, when cooked, were rated very good. Japanese seedsmen
commonly furnish some seeds of C. moschata and
planting with such interspecific F1 hybrids.
Seeds of C. moschata from Japan and several standard
American varieties of the two species mentioned were grown
near Tetsukabuto. What few viable seeds that could be found
in open-pollinated Tetsukabuto squashes having an orange
skin and flesh free of any green color were cook-tested.
Only those cooked squashes that had dry, sweet flesh of
good flavor and texture were saved for seeds. Little attention
was paid to size and shape of the fruits till later generations.
Repeated selfing is an accepted procedure for attaining
true-breeding lines of squash. In this interspecific breeding
material, few successful self-pollinations could be realized
until F4 and F5. Many plants were
male sterile. Some plants failed to have even a single male
blossom open on the same morning as a female blossom, thereby
precluding self-pollination. Thus, only open-pollinated
seeds could be saved from early generations of this interspecific
cross. Each year progenies from selected open-pollinated
squashes were planted near varieties and breeding lines
of Cucurbita maxima having squashes with orange skin. Nor
was isolation from C. moschata varieties and breeding lines
At anthesis of their first female flowers, those plants
having green ovaries rather than a golden color were considered
rogues and were removed promptly. From among the open-pollinated
polymorphic fruits of F4, a 17-pound orange-colored
squash having excellent quality cooked flesh was selected.
The variety Geneva #3 (later named redskin) was among others
grown nearby the F4. In F5, grown
from seeds of the 17-pound selected squash, six orange-skin
self-pollinated squashes that met all specifications for
a high quality cooked product were selected. When self-pollination
and selection for 3 more generations had been completed,
a true-breeding line was established in 1965 and was designated
as NH#7 for further testing.
Description of Nh # 7 squash: The smooth oval fruits
14 to 16 inches in length and 8 inches in diameter weigh
12 to 14 pounds. The thin waxy skin has a bright red color.
The skin is so thin that it hardly needs to be removed from
the dry, sweet, fine-grained flesh before cooking. Both
skin and flesh are entirely free of green color as well
as the stem of the squash which is a golden color. Flesh
is one and one-half inches thick. The seed cavity is relatively
small. The plump buff seeds have an enamel seed coat. The
squashes mature early on strong-growing, long-trailing vines.
Besides being attractive for roadside markets because of
its bright red color, "Redgold" squash may surpass
other varieties in usefulness for packaging in polyethylene
No study of inheritance of golden stem color has been attempted
yet. NH # 7 appears homozygous for this trait and a few
seeds can be made available to anyone wanting to study this
18. Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Powdery Mildew
in Cucurbita pepo
Department of Plant Breeding, Cornell University, Ithaca,
L.W. Schaible and M.W. Martin in their Cornell Ph.D. theses
reported resistance to CMV in several Plant Introductions
of Cucurbita pepo. Progenies from crosses made by Martin
have been grown on a small scale since he completed his
work in 1959. Two sisters F4 progenies from row
61-303 have shown no clear symptoms of mosaic in artificially
inoculated field tests where susceptible varieties showed
extreme mottling and stunting. These progenies came from
P.O. 176959 x Yankee Hybrid.
In 1965, the same two progenies remained essentially free
of powdery mildew in the field when squash and cucumbers
adjacent to them became white with mildew. Earlier notes
indicate that similar observations had been made in at least
two previous years. Unfortunately, a greenhouse test in
january 1966 reveals that the powdery mildew resistance
of these lines is much less striking under winter greenhouse
conditions, but a few plants of P.I. 176959 seem somewhat
more resistant than the progenies derived from crosses with
Our seed supply of both the PI and the 61-303 progenies
is very limited, but we will be glad to share what we can
spare for other breeders who are especially interested in
exploring the field resistance these seem to carry.
19. Ripe Rot of Peppers
Horticulture Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama
Ripe rot is an important disease of ripening peppers in
our area. Several P.I. numbers which I observed in field
in past years and again during 1965 season were so highly
resistant to the ripe rot disease that the fruits ripened
and gradually dried on the plants without rotting even during
prolonged warm rainy periods. The most promising of these
accessions are of the species Capsicum sinense,
which crosses readily with C. annuum. I will supply
seeds to interested breeders on request.
20. Screening for High Temperature Tomato Fruit Set Using
H.T. Erickson, M.L. Tomes and R.J. Barman
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana
The "milk bottle technique" has been used by
potato breeders for several years as a means of increasing
the success of difficult matings. Six to twelve inch stem
cuttings are made having an inflorescence with the first
flower at or approaching anthesis. These are placed in bottles
of water or water with nutrients, and a bactericide. Fertilization
and seed development, requiring 3 to 4 weeks to mature,
proceed normally on these excised cuttings.
Interest in breeding for high temperature tomato fruit
setting ability suggested a modification of this technique
as a method for screening large numbers of breeding lines
including individual plants in segregating progenies. Natural
field conditions are generally too variable from season
to season to be efficient.
A controlled climate chamber was set at a 16 hour day,
with daytime temperatures of 90° and night temperatures
of 80°. Cuttings about six inches long, having at least
one developed leaf, and the first flower nearly at anthesis,
were placed in the chamber in 125 ml flasks of tap water,
three cuttings per flask, with no nutrients added. Each
day the flowers were tapped to assure pollination.
A number of lines were tested before screening was initiated
to verify the existence of differential varietal response
under the experimental conditions.
On July 7, 1965, cuttings made from plants growing in the
field were placed in the controlled climate chamber. An
observation block of 153 entries and a breeding block of
93 advanced lines were sampled by taking single cuttings
from three plants of each line.
Fruit setting data were recorded July 20. Ovaries were
well developed on those flowers that had set. In most cases
the flowers that had not set abscised in a few days. For
a few flowers that did not abscise there was very little
apparent ovary development. These were classified as non-setting.
In certain questionable cases additional time might have
resolved any uncertainty.
In nearly every instance only one fruit developed per inflorescence.
Those that set multiple fruit were primarily very small-fruited
A summary of the results is given below. The "observation"
entries include many commercial varieties, advanced breeding
lines such as those in the Southern Tomato Exchange Program
(STEP) trial, and a number of PI's. Percentage of the total
for each of the two groups is given in parenthesis.
cuttings per line setting fruit
Purdue breeding lines
Over half of the observation lines failed to set any fruit.
Twenty percent had one cutting that set and 11% had two
that set. Of the 13 lines (nine percent) that set in all
three inflorescences 10 are from extreme northern U.S.,
Canada and Europe. Three of these were strains of Fireball.
Only one of 42 STEP entries was in this category. It was
from Texas. (Of the STEP entries 33 (79%) had no set). One
of the 13 in the highest ranking category was an F1
The Purdue advanced breeding lines were somewhat higher
in intermediate categories but about equal to the observation
group in percentage of highest setting entries.
Lines originating in cold, northern areas rated higher
in their ability to set at high temperatures than those
from more southern regions. But for some time it has been
known that ability to set in low temperatures is associated
with high temperature set.
This excised inflorescence technique is adapted to large
scale screening when controlled climate facilities are available.
It is much more economical of time and space than the growing
of intact plants under controlled conditions. Fruits have
been raised to maturity on these cuttings (which almost
always have roots) in soil if selections for setting ability
are to be made directly from the excised inflorescence.
21. Release of a Tomato Breeding Line, CVF4, with Combined
Resistance to Curly Top, Verticillium Wilt, and Fusarium
Mark W. Martin
U.S.D.A., Logan, Utah
The U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Utah Agricultural
Experiment station are jointly releasing the curly top resistant
tomato breeding line, CVF4. CVF4 is also highly resistant
to Verticillium and Fusarium wilts.
The curly-top resistance, although not complete, is of
a level economically important to those areas where the
disease is prevalent. Table 1 illustrates the type of test
results obtained both in the greenhouse and field.
Table 1. Response of line CVF4 to curly-top virus in greenhouse
seedling tests at Logan, Utah, and field tests at Prosser,
Washington, and St. George, Utah.
* Greenhouse tests (Number 1 and Number 2) are each the
combined results of two tests with similar levels of exposure
to curly-top virus.
** Number of healthy plants divided by total number of
The curly-top resistance of CVF4 is derived from the wild
species Lycopersicon peruvianum var. dentatum,
L. hirsutum and L. pimpinellifolium. Three
small-fruited breeding lines, with low levels of curly-top
resistance derived from these wild sources, were intercrossed
to produce a line with a higher level of resistance. This
three-way cross line was backcrossed twice to a susceptible,
Verticillium-Fusarium wilt resistant breeding line of commercial
type. The breeding line CVF4 is the F6 generation
of a selection made from this second backcross.
The three-way cross line had extremely poor plant and fruit
characteristics. The fruit weighed only about one-half ounce.
However, it has been possible to transfer most of the resistance
to curly top from this three-way cross line through three
successive backcrosses and combine it with good plant and
fruit characteristics and large fruit size. No apparent
linkages between genes for resistance and genes for unfavorable
horticultural characteristics have been observed. In each
of the three backcrosses, results indicate that resistance
to curly top is controlled by dominant genes. Studies are
in progress to obtain more detailed data on the mode of
inheritance of resistance.
The Verticillium wilt and Fusarium wilt resistance of CVF4
were derived from the VF resistant backcross parent which
in turn derived Verticillium wilt resistance from VR Moscow
and Fusarium wilt resistance from Ohio Wilt-Resistant Globe.
CVF4 does not have fruit adapted to either commercial hand
picking or machine picking. However, promising CVF resistant
lines of commercial type result from crossing this line
with commercial varieties. In trials at Farmington and St.
George, Utah, and Prosser, Washington, CVF4 has had a somewhat
smaller plant with less foliage but much better fruit set
and earlier season of maturity than the commercial variety
VR Moscow. Fruit of CVF4 average about three ounces in size,
and in type, firmness and internal color resembles VR Moscow.
Good crack resistance, small core and good peeling ability
have been noted in CVF4 but it is low in soluble solids.
Limited amounts of seed are available without charge to
tomato breeders who request it from Mark W. Martin, Department
of Botany, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.
22. The Effect of Soil Moisture Levels on Style Elongation
in Some Tomato Varieties
Dermot P. Coyne
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska
Abnormal elongation of styles during periods of dry hot
weather results in severe reduction of fruit set in tomatoes
(Smith, O. 1935. Cornel Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem. 184).
The styles were also observed to elongate abnormally under
conditions of low soil moisture (Smith, O. 1932. J. of Agr.
Res. 41: 183-190). However, the author has found no information
in the literature on the effect of levels of soil moisture
on style elongation of different varieties in relation to
In 1965, the effect of high and low soil moisture on style
elongation was studied in 5 tomato varieties grown in the
field in western Nebraska. The two varieties Porter and
Narcarlang are well known for their ability to set fruit
under high temperature, while No. 146, VF 145-B and an old
variety, Polar Circle, are not recognized as being heat
tolerant. It was planned also to study the relation of style
elongation and fruit set under high temperature of the different
varieties. However, the season was relatively cool and all
varieties showed a good fruit set, so the latter part of
the investigation was abandoned. A split plot design consisting
of 2 replicates was used, with irrigation treatments as
main plots and varieties as subplots. In the high and low
irrigation treatments, the available soil moisture was allowed
to decline to 70 and 30 percent, respectively, and then
irrigated to field capacity. The approximate available soil
moisture in the high and low soil moisture plots was 70%
and 45%, respectively, when the data were recorded. Style
length was measured in relation to the tip of the anther
cone. If the style protruded beyond the anther cone or remained
within the anther cone, the style was measured from the
stigma to the tip of the anther cone in + and - mms, respectively.
When the stigma was level with the tip of the anther cone,
a zero value was recorded. The style length of 20 newly
opened flowers was recorded in each plot. Green fruit of
varying size had developed on the first truss of all varieties
at the time of recording the data.
A differential varietal response of style elongation under
the two soil moisture levels was observed (Table 1). The
styles of the varieties Narcarlang and Polar Circle showed
a significant increase in length under soil moisture stress,
and the styles of the former variety protruded beyond the
anther cone. It would have been interesting to have observed
the effect of high night temperature and hot dry windy days
on the fruit set of Narcarlang under soil moisture stress,
since this variety is well known for ability to set fruits
under high temperatures. (Schaible, L.W., Proc. Plant Sc.
Symp. Campbell Soup Co. 1962.). Previous research showed
that abnormal style elongation resulted in reduction of
fruit set. There was no significant difference between the
style lengths of the other three varieties when grown under
the two moisture levels.
Table 1. Style mean length in mms above (+) or below (-)
tip of anther cone of 5 tomato varieties under high and
low irrigation treatment in the field.
|Variety and source
|Polar Circle (Ft. Collins Ser. No. 27153)
|VF 145-B (Univ. of California)
|Narcarlang PI 273,445
|Porter (Porter Seed Co.)
|No. 146 (Asgrow)
Irrigations within variety means
HSD .05 =
Varieties within irrigation means
HSD .05 =
23. Studies on the Production of First Generation Tomato
Hybrid in the United Arab Republic
Z.E. Abdel-Al, S. Hamdy, and Y.A. El-Kabany
Alexandria University, Alexandria, U.A.R.
Several tomato varieties such as Stoner, Victory, Money
Maker, Fireball, Shyenne, and Geneva 11 were crossed to
obtain 15 possible combinations of first generation hybrids.
The parent varieties and their 15 crosses were tested in
a randomized block design variety trial at Alexandria University
Farm during the summer of 1964. The early yield, total yield
and fruit size were determined as shown in Table 1.
Results indicated that most hybrids gave greater early
yield than the early variety Fireball. The first generation
hybrid of (Fireball x Money Maker) gave 40% increase in
early yield over Fireball. The cross (Victory x Shyenne)
gave 50% increase in early yield over Shyenne. The first
generation hybrid (Victory x Fireball) gave 52% increase
in early yield over Fireball. An increase of 400% in early
yield was obtained from the first generation (Geneva 11
x Money Maker) over the average early yield of its parents.
Regarding total yield, the results showed that the first
generation hybrid (Victory x Shyenne) gave 55.9 tons per
feddan*, whereas, the average yield of its parents was 19.26
tons per feddan. Fruit size of most hybrids was of medium
size. However, few hybrids tended to give either small or
large sized fruits. The study recommended the commercial
production of the first generation (Geneva 11 x Money Maker)
and (Victory x Shyenne) since the increase in early and
total yield was approximately 5 and 2 1/2 times that of
their parents, respectively.
*Feddan = 1.038 Acre (10,000 tomato plants in a feddan).
Table 1. Early yield, total yield and fruit size of parent
varieties and their F1 hybrids.
Parent and Hybrids
in tons per feddan
in tons per feddan
|Victory x Stoner
|Victory x Fireball
|Victory x Geneva 11
|Victory x Shyenne
|Victory x Money Maker
|Stoner x Fireball
|Stoner x Geneva 11
|Stoner x Shyenne
|Stoner x Money Maker
|Fireball x Shyenne
|Fireball x Money Maker
|Geneva 11 x Shyenne
|Geneva 11 x Money Maker
|Shyenne x Money Maker
24. Tomato Stock Available
Paul G. Smith
University of California, Davis, California
Jointless (j2j2) pedicel with normal
inflorescence. The original stocks of jointless (j2j2)
are associated with a multiple inflorescence, which is highly
undesirable. In 1965, from an F2 population involving
Heinz 1748 obtained from C.A. John, a single plant was found
with the jointless pedicel and normal inflorescence. This
plant (64N108), when selfed, was true breeding for this
condition, and in F2 populations from crosses
of normal inflorescence lines with 64N108, the jointless
pedicel was recovered in about 25 per cent of the population.
All the plants had the normal inflorescence.
The fruit can be picked from plants with the jointless
character as readily as from those with the normal jointed
pedicel. The value of this gene appears to be particularly
for use with mechanically harvested varieties in eliminating
fruit puncture and the need for hand removal of adherent
Seed may be obtained from Paul G. Smith at the above address.
25. Other Stocks Available
U.S. Horticultural Field Station, La Jolla, California
We have the following stocks that may be of interest to
- Yellow-green (Whitaker, Thomas W. Genetic and chlorophyll
studies of a yellow-green mutant in muskmelon. Plant Physiology
- Male-sterile 1 (Bohn, G.W., and T.W. Whitaker. A gene
for male sterility in the muskmelon (Cucumis melo
L.). Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 53: 309-314. 1949.)
- Male-sterile 2 (Bohn, G.W., and Joseph A. Principe.
A second male-sterility gene in the muskmelon. Jour. Hered.
- Nectarless (Bohn, G.W., and Louis K. Mann. Nectarless,
a yield-reducing mutant character in the muskmelon. Proc.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 76:455-459. 1960. Bohn, G.W. Inheritance
and origin of nectarless. A yield-reducing mutant character
in muskmelon. Jour. Hered. 63:233-237. 1961.)
26. Stocks Desired
- Brassica oleracea. Sources of male sterility
in Brassica oleracea. M.H. Dickson, N.Y. State Agricultural
Experiment Station, Geneva, New York.
- Muskmelon. Breeding material or varieties for
resistance to watermelon mosaic virus (WMV 1 and WMV 2)
or cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Robert C. Tang, Dessert
Seed Company, P.O. Box 181, El Centro, California.
- Tomato. (1) Breeding material for bacterial
wilt resistance. Robert C. Tang. (2) Tomato line resistant
to Septoria leaf spot. Paul Prashar, Dept. of Horticulture,
South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, S.D. 57006.
- Pisum sativum. Seed that is resistant to or,
has high tolerance to, Fusarium solani f.
pisi. This is required for breeding purposes. V.W.
Nuttall, Vegetable Crops Unit, Ottawa Research Sta., Central
Exper. Farm, Ottawa, Canada.
27. Uncatalogued Vegetable Varieties Available for Trial
This list is aimed at facilitating the exchange of information
about potential new varieties, or new varieties which have
not yet appeared in catalogues. Persons conducting vegetable
variety trials who wish seed of items on this list should
request samples from the sources indicated.
It is the responsibility of the person sending out seed
to specify that it is for trial only, or any other restriction
he may want to place on its use.
Crops are listed alphabetically, with lima beans and sweet
corn listed under "L" and "S". For each
entry the following information is given: designation, source
of trial samples, outstanding characteristics, variety suggested
for comparison (not given separately if mentioned in description),
status of variety (preliminary trial, advanced trial, to
be released, or released), and contributor of information
if different from source of trial samples. Where several
samples are listed consecutively from one source, the address
is given only for the first.
- OSU 949 - W.A. Frazier, Oregon State University,
Corvallis, Oregon. Bush snap bean derived by backcrossing
to Blue Lake pole' pods near Blue Lake quality. Adapted
best to cool climates. Released.
- OSU 2065- W.A. Frazier. Bush bean derived by backcrossing
to Blue Lake pole; near Blue Lake in pod quality;
distinctly poor adaptation to warm climates. Released.
- Hi-red- Eugene P. Brasher, Dept. of Horticulture,
University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 18711. Smooth,
globe-shaped roots with very deep red exterior and
interior color. Compare with Detroit Dark Red. To
- Matadore No.1- Takii & Company, Ltd., Kyoto,
Japan. Hybrid cabbage(F-1), extra early, making head
of about 9000 grams in about 40-45 days from direct
sowing and 30-35 days from setting the plants. Leaves
wavy and crumpled coarsely like lettuce, tender and
crisp with very little cabbage odor. Good for serving
raw as salad also for cole-slaw. Excellent heat resisting
and do very well even under temperature 37-38°
if there is enough moisture in the soil. Commercial
seed available after the crop of 1966.
- Hybrid #9. David J. Thompson, Ferry-Morse Seed Co.,
Inc., San Juan Bautista, California 95045. Midseason
(about 2 days later than Resistant Glory), exceptionally
uniform, very short core, exceptionally firm heads,
excellent interior conformation. Firm heads are developed
early and continue to increase in size up to 6-7"
diameter. Suitable for market or kraut. resistant
to yellows. Distinct; is intermediate between Copenhagen
and Ballhead types. Released, to be named.
- E 4202-David J. Thompson. Uniform, early, round,
solid heads. An F1 hybrid, second-early
maturity. Resistant to yellows. A market type. Compare
with Badger Market. Released, to be named.
- E 4205 -David J. Thompson. , Ferry-Morse Seed Co,.
Inc,. San Bautista, California 95045. Very uniform
ad productive, An F1 hybrid. Resistant
to yellows. Midseason maturity. Compare with Ferry's
Round Dutch. Released, to be named.
- F1 #432 - Robert C. Tang, Dessert Seed
Co., P.O. Box 181, E1 Centro, California, 92244. Danvers
Half Long type, good uniformity with deep red-orange
skin, red core, rich in flavor and very sweet. It is
F1 hybrid. Advanced trial.
- 4159 F1 Hybrid - O.H. Pearson, SRS Seeds,
NCD-FMC, 2650 san juan Highway, San Juan Bautista, Calif.
95045. Blunt taper, full sides, bunching type, midseason.
Compare with Imperator. Preliminary trial.
- 4198 F1 - O.H. Pearson. Early, medium length,
full sides stump. Well colored. Preliminary trial.
- T-2 - Robert C. Tang, Dessert Seed Co., Inc., P.O.
Box 181, E1 Centro, California 92244. Extra early,
pure white firm head, excellent quality, uniform.
Compare with Early Snowball A. Advanced trial.
- Tall Utah 52-75 - David J. Thompson, Ferry-Morse
Seed Co., San Juan Bautista California 95045. Compact,
large sizes. Color slightly darker green than 52-70
and has more attractive sheen. Tolerant to Western
celery mosaic, and boron and magnesium deficiencies.
Released, recently named.
- Poinsett - W.C. Barnes, Clemson Univ. Truck Station,
P.O. Box 3158, Charleston, S.C. 29407. Slicer. Resistant
to downy and powdery mildew, angular leafspot, anthracnose.
Compare with Ashley, Polaris. Released. On limited
sale by primary seed growers.
- Tablegreen 65 - H.M. Munger, Plant Breeding Dept.,
Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14850. Very similar
to Tablegreen but with scab resistance added designated
as "S" strain of SR Tablegreen in trials.
- Marketmore ( Trial No.Sr 388). H.M. Munger. Highly
resistant to mosaic and scab, high yields of marketable
fruit, earlier than Tablegreen. Fruit very straight
and symmetrical; color similar to Marketer. Released
- Ottawa 21 -- V.W. Nuttall, Ottawa Research Station,
Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Early,
productive, all-female Pickling F1 Hybrid.
Resistant to scab, some tolerance to CMV; good length.
No seed of andromonoecious pollen parent mixed with
Ottawa 21, so grow adjacent or near to variety lie
SMR 18. Compare with Spartan Dawn, Wisconsin SMR 18.
- Pickle # 2 - Takii & Company, Ltd., Kyoto, Japan.
Hybrid cucumber ( F-1). Very prolific, setting female
flower on very node. Vigorous growing with good resistance
to mosaic, downy mildew, late blight and scab. Fruit
very uniform, good for pickling. Single cross between
a gynoecious strain an a Japanese variety. To be released.
- Piccadilly - David J. Thompson, Ferry-Morse Seed
Co., San Juan Bautista, California 95045. Very high
early and total yield, early maturity, excellent color,
fewer culls than Spartan Dawn. A gynoecious hybrid
(formerly Hybrid 57). Field resistance to scab and
mosaic, and tolerance to powdery and downy mildew.
Released, recently named.
- Pico- David J. Thompson. Gynoecious hybrid producing
5-10% fewer culls than Spartan Dawn. (Formerly Hybrid
55) Field resistance to scab and mosaic. Released,
- 50588-M (un-named) - Thomas W. Whitaker, P.O.Box
150, LaJolla, California. Crisphead type, small (30-36
heads per standard carton), uniform, resistant to
downy mildew, relatively tip-burn free. Resembles
Vanguard; excellent quality but not adapted to summer
production; does well in late fall and spring plantings
in desert areas of California and Arizona; also spring
plantings in coastal areas. Compare with Calmar. Advanced
- Lima Bean
- Easyshell - Julian C. Miller, Dept. of Horticulture,
Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, La. 92244. Quality,
productivity, and easy to shell. This is a cross between
Carolina Sieva and the USDA Fordhook 252. It is very
vigorous and produces successive crops throughout
the summer until killed by frost. To be released in
- Dream (Hybrid cantaloupe F-1). Takii & Company,
Ltd., Kyoto, Japan. It is the single cross between
Cantaloupe and Persian Winter Melon. Fruit high globe
shape, about 900 grams each, creamy white, without
netting. Flesh salmon orange, near the skin is greenish,
about 3-4 cm. thick. Sugar degree 13-15°. 3-4
days after ripening is required. Easy to grow where
the temperature will not rise over 30°C. and unless
subjected to severe drought, there is little worry
of cracking fruit. Matures in about 50 days from fruit
- OSU 11- W.A. Frazier, Horticulture Dept., Oregon
State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331. Deep yellow
globe, of complex origin. Because of complex parentage
this new open pollinated onion is suggested as a pollinator
for male sterile lines of Globes and Sweet Spanish.
Compare with various Yellow Globes. Advanced trial.
- Supersweet - H.H. Marshal, CDA Research Station,
Brandon, Manitoba, or Charles Walkof, Experimental
Farm, Morden, Manitoba, Canada. Combines classical
wrinkled and new wrinkled, therefore is sweeter than
conventional varieties, with sugar content up to 15%.
Compare with Lincoln. To be released.
- NH #DS-1 - E.M. Meader, Plant Science Dept., University
of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H. Early, dwarf ornamental
popcorn; small "strawberry-like" ears (4.5
are red and 1/5 golden). Ornamental use and not selected
for popability. Advanced trial.
- Caloro - Paul G. Smith, Dept. of Vegetable Crops,
Univ. of California, Davis, Calif. 95616. wax type
of pepper, fruit conic, 2 1/2" x 1 1/4",
firm, pungent. Plans resistant to tobacco mosaic.
Compare with Floral Gem. To be released.
- Dessert 8384 - Robert C. Tang, Dessert Seed Co.,
P.O. Box 181, E1 Centro, California. Hungarian Wax
Hot Type, very prolific, uniform, good vigor, tobacco
mosaic resistant. Preliminary trial.
- Sweet Pepper
- 63- 29 - John Wiebe, Horticultural Experiment Station,
Vineland Station Ontario, Canada. Thick walled,
tall productive, tip shaped fruit; flesh thickness
usually greater than California Wonder, fruit considerable
smaller, consider for processing into pickles. Compare
with Pennwonder. Advanced trial.
- 63-36- John Wiebe. Early production of medium sized
fruit is the most useful character. Short, dwarf plant;
early upright bearing. Compare with Vinedale.
- Red Devil - David J. Thompson, Ferry- Morse seed
Co., Jan Bautista, California 95045. Deep, bright
red color, small smooth crowns with no scale. About
4 days earlier than Short Top Scarlet Globe. Released,
- Southern Pea
- Ark 206 - John L. Bowers, Dept. of Horticulture
& Forestry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville,
Ark. 72701. Dwarf bush type, long peduncles, pods
set above foliage level and concentration of pod set.
Bean in pod is more kidney shape and rather loose
in pod. Advanced trail.
- Ark 205 - John L. Bowers. Early, concentration of
pod sets, bush type plant. Easily shelled Southern
pea in the Blackeye group. Compare with Princess Anne
Blackeye. Advanced trial.
- Geneva Hyb. #1 - G.A.Marx, Vegetable Crops Dept.,
N.Y.S. Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New
York 14456. Good internal color (high carotene); high
solids. Developed by use of our new male sterile line.
50-100 seeds can be supplied to up to 25 interested
individuals or agencies. Compared with Golden Delicious
and /or Boston Marrow. Preliminary trial.
- 8263/8249 - O.H. Pearson, SRS Seeds, NCD - FMC,
2650 San Juan Highway, San Juan Bautista, California
95045. Slender glossy, full colored dark green fruit.
High yield. Hybrid. Compare with Zucchini. Preliminary
- SC-7 - Wayne R. Sitterly, Clemson Truck Experiment
Station, P.O. Box 3158, Charleston, S.C. 29407. High
yield, earliness, tolerance to squash mosaic and cucumber
mosaic viruses. Not tolerant to watermelon mosaic
virus. Compare with Summer Crookneck. To be released.
- Sweet Corn
- VH661 - E.A. Kerr, Horticultural Experiment Station,
Vineland Station, Ontario, Canada. Good appearance
and quality for market; excellent freezing quality.
Compare with Jubilee. Preliminary trial.
- VH 662- E.A. Kerr. Similar to Vh661. Preliminary
- E3555- Ed Cockrum, Ferry Morse Seed Co., Box 446,
Caldwell, Idaho. Very high quality Sweet Corn. Compare
with Carmelcross. Advanced trial.
- E3557 - Ed Cockrum. Bright yellow color, deep narrow
kernels, sturdy stalk. main crop processor. Compare
with Victory Golden. Advanced trial.
- K65 - E.W. Chipman, Research Station, Kentville,
N.S., Canada. Early, productive variety adaptable
to cool climates. may have resistance to R3
Phytophthora infestans. Compare with Fireball. Advanced
- V6512 - E.A. Kerr, Horticultural Experiment Station,
Vineland Station, Ontario, Canada. Similar to V6511
but slightly later. Compare with Rideau. Advanced
- V6511- E.A. Kerr. early, crack resistant, excellent
color. Compare with Rideau. Advanced trial.
- V661 - E.A. Kerr. sp u, crack resistant, excellent
color. Compare with Glamour. Preliminary trial.
- Ind. 64-41-1 - M.L. Tomes, Botany and Plant Pathology
Dept., Purdue U., Lafayette, Ind. uu, hp hp, Fusarium
resistant, determinate, fruit size adequate. This
is an early, high pigment type. Advanced trial. Contributed
by H.T. Erickson, purdue.
- Ind. 64-44-1 - M.L. Tombes. uu, determinate, Fusarium
resistant, early maturing, good solids, compact vine
with good cover. Compare with Heinz 1350. Advanced
trial. Contributed by H.T. Erickson, Purdue U.
- Willamette- W.A. Frazier, Oregon State University,
Corvallis, Oregon. Determinate; second early, fruit
medium large, solid, unusually smooth, uniform color
gene, globe to deep globe; resistant to radial cracking,
fair resistance to concentric cracking. Formerly tested
as OSU 435 in Oregon and elsewhere. Possible value
as second early in some area; not resistant to verticillium
or fusarium; fruit characters of possible value for
breeding purposes. Released.
- Medford - W.A. Frazier. Determinate, later than
Willamette; fruit medium to large, tends to rough,
globe to slight flattened, uniform color gene; rather
good foliage cover; adaptation may be limited. Probably
limited value except to breeders of determinate types
who are seeking better foliage cover although performance
for this character in various areas is not known.
- Large Germany Cherry - W.A. Frazier. Oregon State
Univer. Corvallis, Oregon. Indeterminate, rather vigorous,
with medium foliage cover; fruits large cherry 1 to
1/2 inches, normal green when immature, smooth, few
locular, rather soft, prolific, sweet; resistant to
cracking up to 'burst' type in prolonged wet weather.
Selected from PI 180725, originating in Germany ;
original cross made by Baur at Berline-Dahlem; parents
Kondine Red and Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium;
disease resistance not known. Released.
- AU 22 - W.H. Greenleaf, Horticulture Dept. , Auburn
University, Auburn, Alabama 36830. Resistant to root
knot (Meloidogyne incognita incognita and M.
incognita acrita), Fusarium wilt, leafspot. was
top yielder in STEP trial at Auburn, Alabama in 1965.
Large, meaty tomato primarily intended for home garden
and green wrap trade. Compare with Marion, Rutgers,
Delsher, HS'24. To b released in 1965, currently in
- AU 134- W.H. Greenleaf. Resistant to root knot (M.
incognita& acrita), Fusarium wilt. Alternaria
and Stemphylium, Septoria (?) leafspots. Very promising.
Should be competitive with the best varieties for
fresh market and green wrap trade. Resistance to blossom
end rot indicated. Compare with Homestead 24, Marion,
Rotger, Delsher. Preliminary trial. Is in 1966 STEP
trial, also in several locations in Alabama in '66.
- SI-5 - J.G. Metcalf, Smithfield Experimental Farm,
Box 340, Trenton, Ontario, Canada. High yield, crack
resistant, mid-season, sp, u. Compare with Rideau.
- Early Cherry - H.M. Munger, Plant Breeding Dept.,
Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14850. As early as
Farthest North but larger fruit. Advanced trial.
- 61-37 - H.M. Munger. Early as Fireball but with
larger fruit and less blotchy ripening. Advanced trial.
- 5314 - O.H. Pearson, SRS Seeds. NCD-FMC, 2650 San
Juan Highway, San Juan Bautista, California 95045.
Determinate, early, 4 oz. round, firm' Fusarium or
1370. Smaller frame more uniform maturity. Preliminary
- Hybrid 9 - O.H. Pearson. Early high yield, well
concentrated maturity; 5 ox. round firm. Has had good
reports in New York State as possible processing type.
- 790- R.W. Robison. Vegetable Crops Dept., N.Y.S.
Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N.Y. 14456.
Extremely early; resistant to Verticillium of maturity.
Very determinate, with minimal foliage cover. Promising
for direct seeding. not adapted to highly acid soils.
Sets well under adverse conditions. To be released.
- 903 - R.W. Robinson. High in titratable acidity
and low in pH. Resistant to Verticillium wilt and
late blight; second early maturity , fruit spherical
rather small, smooth; good concentration of maturity.
- 64-Y-241-3- Paul Prashar, Dept. of Horticulture,
South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, S.D. 57006. Very
heavy setter, Red Pear. Fruit large, early, good flavor.
May have a good possibility for mechanical harvesting.
Vines have good foliage for protection from sun scald.
Compare with any red Pear. To be released.
- Takii's Hope- Takii & Company, Ltd., Kyoto,
Japan. Medium red fruit determinate type, much better
and high yielding than Heinz 1370. Excellent for processing.
Fruit about 10 g., globe shape. To be released.
- F1 #1365 - Robert C. Tang, Dessert Seed
Co,. Inc., P.O.Box 181, El Centro, California. Extra
early, fruits are globular, very smooth, scarlet red.
Very prolific, uniform. Fusarium wilt resistant. It
is F1 hybrid. Compare with Burpee's Big
Early Hybrid. To be released.
- VF 145-21-4P- David J. Thompson, Ferry-Morse Seed
Co., San Juan Bautista, California. Outyields other
VF 145 strains and has better solids. Walls are thicker
than VF 145-21-4, and both flesh and jell color are
deeper red. Mechanical harvester type well, concentrated
maturity, 1-2 weeks earlier than 145-21-4P in maturity.
Recently released, named.
- VF 145-F5- David J. Thompson. Better cover than
VF 145-21-4, better concentration of ripe fruit than
other VF 145 strains, very nearly coreless with extremely
small stem scar. mechanical harvester type- uniform
colored fruits. Fruits average smaller than other
VF 145 strains. A few days later than VF 145-21-4
in maturity. Recently released, named.
- Rocket - Chares Walkof, Experimental Farm, Morden,
Manitoba, Canada. Very early maturity. Compare with
Farthest North. To be released.
- Enterpriser- R. E. Webb, Plant Industry Station,
Beltsville, Maryland 20705. Early, crack-resistant,
Verticillium and Fusarium resistant, small vine. Compare
with H1350. Released.
- Harvester - R. E. Webb. Early, crack-resistant,
Verticillium and Fusarium resistant; small vine. Compare
with Roma. Released.
- Chico Grande - Paul W. Leeper, Texas Agricultural
Experiment Station, Weslaco, Texas 78596. Large fruited
pear type; resistance to gray leaf spot. Fusarium
wilt; good color and yield. Machine harvest type.
Compare with Chico, Red Top, Roma. To be released.
- El Monte - Paul W. Leeper. Vine-ripe type for fresh
market, large determinate, smooth attractive red fruit;
resistant to gray leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. Compare
with Rutgers, Homestead, Floradel. To be released.
- La Pinta- Paul W. Leeper. Non staking vine- ripe
type, small determinate vine, large pink fruit; resistance
to Fusarium wilt and gray leaf spot. Compare with
Pink Shipper, Floradel, Homestead.
- 65-2029- Jose R. Deanon, Jr., Vegetable Crops Section,
Dept. of Agronomy, U.P. College of Agriculture, College,
Laguna, Philippines. Early, high yielding, and resistant
to cracking, heavy rains and strong winds. Compare
with Fireball. Preliminary trial.
- ROFG - Carl H. Cadregari, Joseph Harris Co., Rochester,
N.Y. 14624. Large round plum determinate, resistant
to verticillium and fusarium, firm, adapted to mechanical
harvest. Advanced trial.
- OP 5- Carl H. Cadregari. Pink, greenhouse hybrid
resistant to verticillium, fusarium and leaf mold.
Compare with WR7, Ohio- Indiana. Released but not
- Fireball VR- Carl H. Cadregari. Early verticillium
resistant Fireball. Released but not catalogued.
- Caravelle - Carl H. Cadregari. midseason Market
hybrid resistant to verticillium, good yield, adapted
to staking. Compare with Cardinal, Avalanche. To be
28. Addendum: Varieties available from E. Wilbur Scott,
Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Rochester, N.Y. 14624
- ENH- Market type hybrid, good color, good top. Compare
with Imperator, Waltham Hicolor. Preliminary trial.
- Pioneer - Nantes type hybrid in market class, uniform
color, good quality. New selection of previous released
hybrid. To be released.
- P2N16 - Earliness, mosaic resistance. Hybrid slicer
made with gynoecious seed parent. Compare with Ashley,
Marketer. Advanced trial.
- SC Hybrid (3) (Gy54 x SMR Tablegreen) - Scab and
mosaic resistant, tolerance to anthracnose and mildews.
Compare with Ashley. To be released.
- Hybrid 83 - Hybrid slicer made with gynoecious seed
parent. Earliness, scab and mosaic resistance, long
dark green fruit. Compare with Ashley.
- Gold star Improved - Earlier than Gold Star, larger
size, and good quality. Released but not catalogued.
- Sweet corn
- Northern Belle LS- Northern Belle L made with sterile
seed parent and restorer pollen parent . To be released.
- Gold Eagle LS- Gold Eagle made with sterile seed
parent and restorer pollen parent. Compare with Gold
Cup. To be released.
- Gold Cup S. - Gold Cup made with sterile seed parent
and restorer pollen parent. Preliminary trial.
- Gold Cup 82 LS - Market corn resistant to Helminthosporium.
Compare with Gold Cup. Advanced Trial.
- Spring Gold S.- Spring Gold made with sterile seed
parent and restorer pollen parent. Advanced trial.
- Spring Gold 122 B-S- Multirowed 2nd early market
sweet corn. Compare with Spring Gold. Advanced trial.