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Vegetable Cultivar Descriptions for North America

Southernpea (Cowpea), Lists 1-26 Combined

Edited by Richard Fery

USDA/ARS Vegetable Laboratory
2875 Savannah Highway
Charleston, SC 29414

Alabrowneye - Breeder: Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn. Vendor: Farm Security agencies. Parentage: browneye selection from Virginia Blackeye. Characteristics: brown eye and three to five days earlier. Similar: Virginia Blackeye. Adaptation: central to northern Alabama. Southern Seedsman, August, 1938. 1944.

Alabunch - Breeder: Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn. Vendor: Farm Security agencies. Parentage: field cross on Crowder. Characteristics: tall, bunch plants with deep penetrating roots, peas ripen over short time, seeds white with brick or rust eyes. Resistance: most common soil diseases. Adaptation: southern United States. Southern Seedsman, August, 1938. 1944.

Alacrowder - Breeder: Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn. Parentage: Blackeye x Crowder. Characteristics: bunch to vining plant, large white crowder peas, black eyes, of excellent quality. Adaptation: southern United States. Rural Alabama, January, 1945. 1946.

Alagreen Pinkeye - Breeder: Auburn University, Auburn, AL. Parentage: not described. Characteristics: erect, determinate growth habit with limited lateral vines; pods slightly curved, average 25 cm in length, slightly constricted about the seed, have a glossy surface, produce about 14 seeds per pod, and are borne concentrated above the plant; pod color is green when immature, changing to reddish-purple at the mature-green stage; the peas are kidney shaped, medium to large in size (18 to 24 g per 100 seed), have a persistent-green seed coat and a distinct, non-bleeding pink eye. Adaptation: fresh-market use in Alabama. Ala. Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. Rpt. Ser. 11, p. 20. (April 1996).

Alalong - Breeder and vendor: Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn. Parentage: seed from which cultivar developed obtained from scouting of farm plantings. Characteristics: plants large, long pods with large white peas, brown eyes, shells well, high table quality, heavy yielder. Adaptation: southern United States. Alabama, January, 1945. 1946.

Arkansas Blackeye #1 (Arkansas 91-245) - Breeder: University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR. Parentage: not described. Characteristics: medium-sized bush (50 to 65 cm tall with no basal runners) that is well suited to conventional or narrow-row culture; matures 2 to 3 days earlier than Coronet and Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR; pod set is concentrated and the pods are produced in the top of the plant on medium-length peduncles; pods are silver in color, 20 to 25 cm long, and shell easily; seeds have a distinct, medium-sized, black eye, and are similar in size, type, and eye pattern to seeds of California Blackeye No. 5; yield similar to the yields of the best pinkeye purple hull types; canned samples of harvested peas compare favorably to industry standards. Adaptation: first blackeye-type southernpea to be released that is well adapted for commercial production in Arkansas. HortScience 30:821 (1995) and 31:626 (1996).

AUBe - Breeder: Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. Parentage: complex, involves Giant Blackeye, Conch, and Princess Anne Blackeye. Characteristics: nonvining growth habit with pods borne level with or above the foliage; pods contain blackeye type peas, 62 day maturity; yields comparable to Pinkeye Purple Hull and better than California Blackeye 5. Resistance: cowpea curculio and root knot nematodes, exhibits few virus symptoms; moderate to bacterial spot and root rots; susceptible to cercospora leaf spot. Alabama Agric. Expt. Sta., Highlights of Agricultural Research, Vol. 38, Number 3, Fall, 1991.

Bettergreen (US-592) - Breeder: United States Vegetable Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Charleston, South Carolina. Parentage: derived from a single mutant plant harvested from a Carolina Cream population, mutant plant homozygous for newly discovered gene (gt) conditioning a unique green cotyledon trait. Characteristics: phenotype, medium, bushy growth habit; typical pod is slightly curved and contains 12-14 peas; pod color at green shell stage, green with distinct purple shading; fresh peas are small, ovate-reniform in shape; dry peas have a smooth seed coat; can be harvested at near-dry seed maturity without loss of the seeds fresh green color, recommended as a commercial cultivar for the frozen-food industry. Resistance: cowpea curculio, cercospora leaf spot, southern blight, rust, and powdery mildew; tolerance to seedling diseases. Similar: Carolina Cream, except for cotyledon color and slightly greener foliage. Adaptation: southern United States. HortScience 28:856, 1993. 1991.

Bettergro Blackeye (US-481) - Breeder: United States Vegetable Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Charleston, South Carolina. Parentage: Magnolia Blackeye x (Magnolia Blackeye x Ala.963.8). Characteristics: tall, upright plant habit; pod set is concentrated; pod color at green shell stage is cream yellow with a touch of reddish shading and reddish tips; typical pod is slightly curved and contains 12-13 peas; size, shape, and eye pattern of peas similar to those characteristic of Pinkeye Purple Hull and Coronet; medium seed size, 15 g/100 dry seed; outstanding yield potential; excellent canner. Resistance: cowpea curculio, root knot nematodes, rust, and powdery mildew; susceptible to blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. Adaptation: southern United States. HortScience 28:62-63, 1993. 1991.

Bettersnap - Breeder: United States Vegetable Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Charleston, South Carolina. Parentage: product of backcross breeding program to transfer the Rk gene for root knot nematode resistance from Mississippi Cream into the edible-podded cultivar Snapea. Characteristics: high bush habit; concentrated pod set; typical pod is slightly curved, 27 cm long, and contains 16 peas; pod color at harvestable snap stage, dark green; high yield potential. Resistance: root knot nematodes, blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, southern bean mosaic virus, cercospora leaf spot, and scab; susceptible to fusarium wilt. Adaptation: southern United States. HortScience 30:1318-1319, 1995. 1994.

Big Boy Purplehull - Breeder: Sawan Seeds. Vendor: Northrup King Co. Characteristics: small seed size; outstanding yield; plant height, 53 cm; pod length, 18 cm; 10 peas per pod. Similar: Big Boy. Adaptation: southern United States, 1979.

Burgundy (Purple Hull 13) - Breeder: Texas Agric. Expt. Sta., College Station. Vendor: Certified Seed. Parentage: Purple Hull 49 x Blackeye 8152. Characteristics: upright, uniform maturity, good sheller and excellent processor; red pod makes maturity easy to judge. Similar: Purple Hull 49. Adaptation: Texas and perhaps other areas. Texas Agric. Expt. Sta. Leaf. 580, October, 1962.

Calhoun Crowder - Breeder: Louisiana State University, Calhoun, and introduced by Tyner-Petrus, Reuter Seeds. Parentage: Iron x Large Speckled Crowder. Characteristics: 15 cm straight pod; upright, bunch growth; high production. Resistance: nematode, wilt and leaf diseases prevalent in Louisiana. Similar: Speckled Crowder. Adaptation: southern United States. 1942.

California Blackeye 27 (H8-8-27) - Breeder: University of California, Riverside, and the California Agricultural Experiment Station. Parentage: complex; involves California Blackeye No. 5, California Blackeye No. 3, UCD 7977, and African heat tolerant accessions Prima and TVu 4552. Characteristics: erect growth habit (much more compact than California Blackeye No. 5 and slightly more compact than California Blackeye No. 46); seeds are typical blackeye type with white seed coat and black pigment around hilum (base seed coat color is a brighter white than that of California Blackeye No. 46); seed are similar in size to California Blackeye No. 46 (22 g per 100 seed); heat tolerant; seed yield and canning quality comparable to California Blackeye No. 46. Days to dry seed maturity: 95. Resistance: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum races 3 and 4; homozygous for the Rk and rk3 root-knot nematode resistance genes. Adaptation: irrigated crop production systems of the southwestern United States. PVP 200000183. Crop Sci. 40:854-855, 2000. 1999.

California Blackeye 46 (8046) - Breeder: University of California, Davis, and the California Agric. Expt. Sta. Parentage: California Blackeye 5 x (California Blackeye 5 x PI 166146). Characteristics: more erect plant habit than California Blackeye 5; seeds are typical blackeye type, cream seed coat with black pigment around hilum; seed smaller than California Blackeye 5, 19-20 gm per 100 seed vs. 23 gm per 100 seed; 90 day maturity to dry seed; canning qualities comparable to California Blackeye 5 and California Blackeye 3; yields comparable to or better than those of California Blackeye 5. Resistance: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum race 3, homozygous for the Rk root knot nematode resistance gene. Crop Sci. 31:1703, 1991. 1987.

California Blackeye 88 (8518) - Breeder: University of California, Davis, and the California Agric. Expt. Sta. Parentage: California Blackeye 5 x [California Blackeye 5 x (California Blackeye 5 x PI 166146)]. Characteristics: tall, erect, wide plant type; seeds are typical blackeye type, cream seed coat with a black pigment around hilum; smaller seed than California Blackeye 5, 21 gm per 100 seed vs. 23 gm per 100 seed; 90 day maturity to dry seed; yield and canning characteristics comparable to California Blackeye 5. Resistance: fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum race 3; homozygous for the Rk root knot nematode resistance gene. Similar: California Blackeye 5. Crop Sci. 31:1703, 1991. 1989.

Cardinal (Virginia 59-41 PH) - Breeder: Virginia Truck and Ornamental Research Sta., Norfolk. Vendor: George Tait and Sons, Norfolk. Parentage: Texas 49 PH x Virginia 12 PH. Characteristics: runner free bush plant, concentrated 60 day maturity; pods bunched at foliage level, pods rose color at green shell maturity, dark purple at dry maturity; dry seed with light brown eye. Similar: Queen Anne in growth habit and Texas 49 PH in pod and seed characters. Vegetable Growers News, January, 1972.

Carolina Cream (V-306) - Breeder: United States Vegetable Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Charleston, South Carolina. Parentage: selection from CR 17-1-34, which was derived from the cross Alabama 963.8 x Floricream. Characteristics: medium, bushy growth habit; pod set concentrated; pod color at green shell stage, green with a distinct purple shading; typical pod slightly curved, 15 cm long, and contains 13 peas; fresh peas small, cream colored, and ovate-reniform shaped; dry peas cream colored, with smooth seed coats; excellent processing characteristics. Resistance: cowpea curculio, cercospora leaf spot, rust, powdery mildew; tolerance to seedling diseases. Adaptation: southeastern United States. HortScience 19:456-457, 1984. 1982.

Carolina Crowder (US-482) - Breeder: United States Vegetable Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Charleston, South Carolina. Parentage: complex, involves Mississippi Silver, Floricream, and Alabama 963.8. Characteristics: plant habit is medium bushy, somewhat more erect and compact than Mississippi Silver; pod color at green shell stage, brilliant red heavily shaded with cranberry-colored pigment; typical pod is slightly curved and contains 16-17 crowder type peas; peas similar in size and appearance to those of Mississippi Silver; dry seed testa is smooth and light brown; excellent canner; excellent yield potential. Resistance: cowpea curculio, root knot nematodes, blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, fusarium wilt, cercospora leaf spot, rust, and powdery mildew. Adaptation: southern United States. HortScience 27:1335-1337, 1992. 1990.

Champion (Cream 76) - Breeder: Texas Agric. Expt. Sta., College Station. Parentage: Cream 14 x California Blackeye 5. Characteristics: upright, pods high, uniform maturity, excellent freezer and canner. Similar: Cream 8. Adaptation: Texas and perhaps other areas. Texas Agric. Expt. Sta. Leaf, 581, October, 1962.

Charleston Greenpack (US-858) - Breeder: U. S. Vegetable Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Charleston, SC. Vendor: Western Seed Multiplication, Inc., Oglethorpe, GA (exclusive license). Parentage: Kiawah x (Kiawah x Bettergreen). Characteristics: first pinkeye-type cultivar to exhibit the green cotyledon trait (can be harvested at the dry stage of seed maturity without loss of fresh green color); similar in appearance to Coronet and Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR, but usually matures 2 to 3 days earlier; plant habit is low bushy and somewhat more compact than that of either Coronet or Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR; pod set is concentrated and the pods are borne above the foliage in a scattered fashion; typical pod is moderately curved, 17 cm long, and contains 14 peas; pod color is green when immature, dark purple when ready for mature-green harvest, and dark purple when dry; fresh peas are kidney-shaped and have a pink eye (similar to Coronet and Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR peas); dry peas have a smooth seed coat, and are slightly smaller than those of Coronet and Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR; yields are comparable to those of Coronet and comparable to or better than those of Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR. Adaptation: for use as a home garden and fresh market cultivar for spring, midseason, and fall plantings throughout the southeastern United States, and for processing for the frozen food industry. PVP 9700286. HortScience 33:907-908, 1998. 1997.

Climax - Breeder and vendor: University of Florida Agric. Expt. Sta., Gainesville. Parentage: Korean Crowder x Running Acre (Conch). Characteristics: high quality, productive cream. Resistance: root knot nematodes, scab, and Sclerotium rolfsii. Adaptation: primarily for late season for fall Florida market. Florida Agric. Expt. Sta. Circ. S132. 1961.

Colossus (SC 66-16) - Breeder: Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina Vendor: South Carolina Foundation Seed Association. Parentage: South Carolina 59-11 x Floricream. Characteristics: large pod and seed size, harvests and shells easily. Similar: Brown Sugar Crowder. Adaptation: southeast United States. South Carolina Farmer Grower, April, 1972.

Colossus 80 (V-321) - Breeder: United States Vegetable Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Charleston, South Carolina, and Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina. Parentage: product of backcross breeding program to transfer the Cls-1 gene for cercospora leaf spot resistance from CR 17-1-34 into Colossus. Characteristics: bushy, compact growth habit; pods are slightly to moderate curved, medium long; pod color at green shell stage, silver green with a slight reddish tinge; brown crowder type peas have irregular shape and are outstandingly large, 0.75 g per freshly shelled pea. Resistance: cercospora leaf spot, root knot nematodes, and rust; tolerance to mosaic type viral diseases. Similar: in appearance, maturity, and yield potential to Colossus; broader resistance to fusarium wilt than Colossus. Adaptation: southern United States. HortScience 17:263-264, 1982. 1980.

Corona - Breeder: University of Georgia, Athens. Parentage: derived from a single plant in a Coronet population. Characteristics: plants upright, compact plant habit, with dark green foliage; mature pods dark purple, 23 cm long; dry seeds are one cm long, oval shaped, weigh 26 gm per 100 seed, and have a smooth, cream colored testa with a red eye; yields comparable to those of Pinkeye Purple Hull and Coronet. Resistance: blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. Similar: Coronet, except pod length and seed are distinctly larger. HortScience 19:592, 1984.

Coronet - Breeder: University of Georgia, Experiment. Parentage: Pinkeye Purple Hull x [Pinkeye Purple Hull x (Pinkeye Purple Hull x Iron)]. Characteristics: upright and compact plant habit; green shell stage pods are purple and have an average length of 16-17 cm; green shell stage peas are green with a light red eye; dry seeds have a dark red or maroon eye; smooth seed coat; 62 day maturity to green shell, yields equal to Pinkeye Purple Hull. Resistance: tolerance to cowpea strains of southern bean mosaic and cucumber mosaic viruses; susceptible to cowpea yellow mosaic virus; only occasional plants exhibit fusarium wilt symptoms. Similar: Pinkeye Purple Hull plant, pod, and seed characteristics. Georgia Agric. Expt. Sta. Research Rpt. 220, 1976. 1975.

Cream 8 - Breeder and vendor: Texas Agric. Expt. Sta., College Station. Parentage: California Blackeye 5 x Long Pod Cream. Characteristics: upright, high pods, concentrated set, easy shelling, high yield, excellent freezing or market. Adaptation: Texas. 1960.

CT Pinkeye Purple Hull - Breeder: C.T. Smith Company, Pleasanton, Texas. Parentage: selected from a heterogeneous Pinkeye Purple Hull population. Characteristics: procumbent plant habit; pod placement, scattered above the foliage; typical pod is straight with slight constrictions, 19 cm long, and contains 15 peas; pod color at green shell stage, dark purple; fresh peas are ovate to ovoid shaped; dry peas weight 180 g per 1000 seed, have maroon colored eyes and wrinkled seed coats; 67 day maturity to green shell; yields comparable to Coronet. Resistance: blackeye cowpea mosaic virus and soybean cyst nematode; susceptible to bean yellow mosaic virus, cowpea yellow mosaic virus, and cucumber mosaic virus. PVP.

Dixiecream (G8-102-2) - Breeder: Georgia Agric. Expt. Sta., Experiment. Vendor: Foundation Seeds, Athens, GA. Parentage: (Blackeye x Iron) x (Groit x Lady Edible). Characteristics: seeds small to medium, cream colored, processing type; pods 15 cm long, straight, borne slightly above foliage level. Resistance: yellow bean mosaic (cowpea strain). Adaptation: southern United States. Ga. Agric. Expt. Sta. Leaf, 45. 1965.

Early Acre (Arkansas 84-154) - Breeder: University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR. Parentage: not described. Characteristics: very compact bush plant suitable for use in both narrow-row and conventional-row cropping systems; matures 8 to 10 days earlier than White Acre; cream-type seed (size and shape similar to White Acre); yield comparable to White Acre (comparisons made at conventional row spacing); attributes of canned samples of harvested peas equal to those of canned samples of White Acre peas; resistant to bacterial blight. Adaptation: replacement for White Acre in Arkansas. HortScience 27:643-644, 1992.

Early Dixie Queen - Breeder: Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn. Vendor: Farm Security agencies. Parentage: Dixie Queen or California Browneye. Characteristics: plants bunch, quite early, peas shell well, high quality. Resistance: most root diseases. Adaptation: deep southern United States. Southern Seedsman, March, 1938. 1944.

Early Pinkeye - Breeder: University of Georgia, Experiment. Parentage: selection from Pinkeye Purple Hull x (Purple Hull Brown Crowder x Oklahoma 4) double backcross to Pinkeye Purple Hull. Characteristics: upright, compact, non-vining. plant habit; concentrated pod set; greenshell stage pods are purple and average 16.5 cm in length; green shell stage peas are green with a light red eye; dry seeds have dark red or maroon eye; 50-55 day maturity to green shell, peas very similar to those of Pinkeye Purple Hull, yields comparable to Mississippi Silver, but slightly less than Coronet or Pinkeye Purple Hull. Georgia Agric. Expt. Sta. Res. Rpt. 273, 1978. 1977.

Early Purple Hull - Breeder and vendor: Alabama Agric. Expt. Sta., Auburn. Parentage: selection of Purple Hull. Characteristics: early, high yielding, deep purple pods, with medium large brown seeds. Seed and Garden Merchandising, October, 1958. 1959.

Early Scarlet - Breeder: University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR. Parentage: not described. Characteristics: medium sized bush (60 to 75 cm tall) with no basal runners; matures 2 to 3 days earlier than Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR; pod set is concentrated and the pods are produced at the top of the plant on medium-length peduncles; green-mature stage pods are light red in color, 20 to 25 cm long, and shell easily; seeds have light, pink-colored eyes and are similar in size to those of Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR. HortScience 31:626, 1996.

Elite (AR76-256) - Breeder: University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Parentage: VB63-143, 144 x Va 59-119. Characteristics: high bush, erect growth habit; concentrated set; pods 18 cm long and easily shelled; seeds small to medium, cream colored, not crowded in pod; high yield potential; suitable for both canning and freezing. HortScience 13:714, 1978.

Encore (VS81-92) - Breeder: University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Parentage: complex, involves Pinkeye Purple Hull, California Blackeye 5, and Texas Cream 42. Characteristics: erect, bush plant habit; concentrated pod set; pods are straight, 15-18 cm long; mature seed are ovoid shaped with a medium sized brown eye, 23 gm per 100 seed; pod color, bright reddish-purple; high yield; maturity similar to Pinkeye Purple Hull; quality of canned and frozen pea is satisfactory. HortScience 24:401-402, 1989.

Epoch (AR 81-197) - Breeder: University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Characteristics: erect plant habit with short basal branches; concentrated pod set; pod length, 15-18 cm; shell stage peas are medium-large and have a medium to large pinkeye pattern; early maturity; processed peas comparable in quality to those of Pinkeye Purple Hull, canned and frozen. Resistance: tolerance to bacterial blight. Arkansas Farm Research, p 3, July-August, 1984.

Excel - Breeder: University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR. Parentage: not described. Characteristics: compact bush plant habit (45 to 60 cm tall) with no basal runners; matures 3 to 4 days earlier than Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR; pod set is concentrated with pods produced at the top of the plant on medium-length peduncles; green-mature stage pods are deep purple in color, 20 to 25 cm long, and shell easily; seeds have bright, pink-colored eyes and are similar in size to those of Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR. HortScience 31:626, 1996.

Exmore (Va. 69-13) - Breeder: Virginia Truck and Ornamentals Research Station. Parentage: New Hampshire Z Cream x Va. 59-119. Characteristics: erect, determinate growth habit; green shell maturity pods are slightly curved, yellow, and 18-20 cm long; medium to small seed, 13-14 g per 100 dry seed; 40-50 g per mature green seed; 52-60 day maturity; good to excellent yield. The Vegetable Growers News, July, 1975.

Floricream - Breeder: Florida Agric. Expt. Sta., Gainesville. Vendor: Florida Foundation Seed Producers, Gainesville. Parentage: Mississippi 32, Korean Crowder, Running Acre (= Running Conch), and Tavares (accession). Characteristics: determinate, top bearing, high yields, cream colored seed coats, quality retention, pods 20 cm long, semi-crowder; suitable for mechanical harvesting and shelling; number seed per pound equals 2800. Resistance: field resistance to scab and fusarium wilt. Similar: Alabama Crowder in habit and pod characteristics and Texas Cream 40 in quality. Adaptation: southern United States. Florida Agric. Expt. Sta. Circ. S154. 1964.

Freezegreen - Breeder: Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. Parentage: derived from a single dry seed with a green seed coat found in a bulked seed lot of Alabama 963.8, parental background probably includes Lady and Conch. Characteristics: low bushy growth habit with spreading basal branches; pods are straight to slightly curved, 15 cm long; pod color ranges from green with a tinge of purple to solid purple at the green shell stage; seeds are small, globose shaped; dry seed color, light olive; good yield potential; easy to shell, persistent green color of seed coat controlled by the recessive gene gt, green testa. Resistance: cowpea curculio and cercospora leaf spot; susceptible to root knot nematodes. HortScience 14:193, 1979.

Genegreen - Breeder: Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. Parentage: complex, involves Freezegreen, Giant Blackeye, Conch, and Princess Anne Blackeye. Characteristics: slightly viney, bush type growth habit with pods borne level with or above the foliage; medium early maturity; pods are 19 cm long; pod color is green at green shell stage and medium brown when dry; dry peas are small to medium size and are oval to kidney shape, with a small black eye on an olive green seedcoat; persistent green color of seed coat controlled by the recessive gene gt, green testa; yields comparable to Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR and Mississippi Silver. Resistance: blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. Alabama Agric. Expt. Sta., Highlights of Agricultural Research, Vol. 39, Number 3, Fall, 1992.

Giant Blackeye - Breeder: Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn. Vendor: Alabama Seed Improvement Association. Parentage: field cross with Virginia Blackeye. Characteristics: large, uniform, midseason plants; large pods and peas; peas shell well, of high quality. Similar: California Browneye. Adaptation: central and northern Alabama. Southern Seedsman, August, 1956.

Grant (Blackeye Bean) - Breeder: George Grant, Chino, California. Vendor: W. Hinton, Chino. Parentage: unknown, a single plant selection by Grant from Chino 3 cultivar. Characteristics: two weeks later than Chino 3, slightly weaker stem, very susceptible to root knot nematode in southern California. Resistance: fusarium wilt in southern California. Adaptation: Chino area in California. 1954.

Green Dixie Blackeye (US-867) - Breeder: U. S. Vegetable Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Charleston, SC. Parentage: Bettergreen x Bettergro Blackeye. Characteristics: first blackeye-type cultivar to be released that exhibits the green cotyledon trait (can be harvested at the dry seed stage of maturity without loss of fresh green color); high bushy plant habit; produces dry pods in about 71 days (9 days later than Bettergro Blackeye); pod set is concentrated and pods are borne above the foliage in a scattered fashion; typical pod is slightly curved, 21 cm long, and contains 14 peas; pod color is light green when immature, light green with a tendency for slight pigmentation (purple) on the tip when ready for mature-green harvest, and light straw color when dry; dry peas have an oblong shape and black hilar eyes (similar to Bettergro Blackeye), a smooth seed coat, and are somewhat larger than those of Bettergro Blackeye (15.6 g per 100 peas). Yield potential is much greater than that of Bettergro Blackeye. Adaptation: for use throughout the southeastern United States by home gardeners and the dry pack bean industry. 2000.

Green Pixie (US-865) - Breeder: U. S. Vegetable Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Charleston, SC. Parentage: Bettergreen x White Acre. Characteristics: high, bushy plant habit similar to that of White Acre; produces dry pods in about 76 days (5 days later than Bettergreen and 5 days earlier than White Acre); pod set is concentrated and the pods are borne above the foliage in a scattered fashion; typical pod is slightly curved, 15 cm long, and contains 16 cream-type peas; pod color is light green when immature, purple when ready for mature-green harvest, and light straw color when dry; fresh peas have a rhomboid-kidney shape (similar to White Acre); dry peas are small, have a smooth seed coat, and are similar in size to White Acre peas (8.0 g per 100 peas); yield is comparable to Bettergreen and White Acre; homozygous for the gc gene conditioning the green cotyledon trait (peas can be harvested at the dry stage of maturity without loss of their fresh green color). Adaptation: for use by the frozen food industry throughout the southeastern United States as a replacement for White Acre. HortScience 35:954-955, 2000. 1999.

Hercules - Breeder: South Carolina Agric. Expt. Sta., Clemson. Characteristics: semi-erect plant habit; medium maturity; pods are straight, 22 cm long; pod color at green shell stage, green; large, coffee colored, crowder type seeds. Cowpea Newsletter, 1(2):7-14, 1986. 1981.

Kiawah (US-428) - Breeder: United States Vegetable Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Charleston, South Carolina. Parentage: product of backcross breeding program to transfer the Rk gene for root knot nematode resistance from Mississippi Silver into Pinkeye Purple Hull. Characteristics: low, bushy growth habit; pod color at the green shell stage, dark purple; fresh peas are kidney shaped and have a pink eye; dry seed testa is smooth. Similar: in appearance, maturity, and yield potential to Pinkeye Purple Hull. Adaptation: southeastern United States. HortScience 23:645-646, 1988. 1987.

Knuckle Purple Hull - Breeder and vendor: Alabama Agric. Expt. Sta., Auburn. Parentage: selection of Purple Hull. Characteristics: high yielding; medium thick, reddish to purple pods with large seeds that turn brown when dry. Seed and Garden Merchandising, October, 1958. 1959.

Los Banos - Breeder: University of Philippines. Vendor: Louisiana Agric. Expt. Sta., Baton Rouge. Parentage: Singapore x California Blackeye. Characteristics: short day, bunch plant; pods turtle green, 23-30 cm long; tender seeds, creamy white, light brown eye; good sheller. Adaptation: late planting in the southern United States. 1961.

Louisiana Purchase - Breeder: Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Vendor: Reuter and Tyber-Petrus. Parentage: Blackeye and Calhoun Crowder. Characteristics: heavy production, semi-bush type plant, medium long pods produced outside foliage, peas white to creamish with speckled eye. Resistance: nematodes and wilt. Adaptation: southern United States. Louisiana Mimeo. Circ. 20, January, 1954.

Magnolia Blackeye - Breeder: Mississippi State University, Mississippi State. Parentage: complex, involves Extra Early Blackeye, Bunch Purple Hull, and Dixielee. Characteristics: medium sized, bush growth habit; pod color at green shell maturity, light green-yellow; pod length, 18 cm; green shell stage peas are light green in color and have a black eye; seed much less wrinkled than most blackeyes; 65-70 day maturity; good yield potential. Resistance: fusarium wilt and root knot nematodes; tolerance to viruses. Mississippi Agric. And Forestry Expt. Sta. Research Highlights 37(5):1-2, May, 1974.

Mississippi Crowder (Mississippi S-1) - Breeder: Mississippi State College, State College. Vendor: Mississippi Seed Improvement Association. Parentage: wilt resistant selection from a Brown Sugar Crowder population, probably an outcross to Iron. Characteristics: consistent yield, high quality. Resistance: race 1 of fusarium wilt; tolerance to fusarium wilt races 2 and 3 and many virus strains. Similar: Brown Sugar Crowder. Adaptation: southern United States. Mississippi Farm Research 18:1B2, 1955; Southern Seedsman, January, 1956.

Mississippi Pinkeye - Breeder: Mississippi State University, Mississippi State. Parentage: complex, involves Bunch Purple Hull. Characteristics: semi-erect plant habit; concentrated pod set; typical pod is slightly curved, 24 cm long, and contains 18 peas; pods are light purple at green shell maturity and dark purple when dry; mature green peas are light green with a pink eye; dry peas are white with a red eye, average 5 mm wide x 9 mm long, have a kidney shape and smooth testa, weigh 22 gm per 100 seed; 54-60 day maturity; yield and quality of fresh and frozen peas equivalent to other pinkeye type cultivars. Resistance: fusarium wilt and root knot nematodes; tolerance to viruses equal to Mississippi Silver. Similar: Bunch Purple Hull. HortScience 26:76-77, 1991.

Mississippi Shipper - Breeder: Mississippi State University, Mississippi State. Parentage: complex, involves Mississippi Silver, Newton Silverskin, and Knuckle Purple Hull. Characteristics: brown crowder, semi-erect plant habit; concentrated pod set; pod color, dark green when immature, dark purple over part of the pod at the green shell stage, and completely dark purple when dry; seed color is light green to cream when immature and tan to brown when mature; dry seed crowder shaped, smooth, 7 mm long x 6 mm wide, and weigh 24 gm per 100 seed; high yield potential; pods maintain pod wall color during the time required for fresh market shipping, storage, and retailing; recommended for use both as a fresh market and canning pea. Resistance: fusarium wilt, root knot nematodes, cowpea curculio, and choanephora pod rot; tolerance to blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, cowpea severe mosaic virus; southern bean mosaic virus, cowpea strain, and cucumber mosaic virus. Similar: Mississippi Purple, except for pod color and pod wall thickness. HortScience 20:1142-1143, 1985. 1984.

Mississippi Silver (MS 64) - Breeder: Mississippi State University, State College. Vendor: Mississippi Foundation Seed Stocks. Parentage: Newton Silverskin x breeding strains from Mississippi Crowder. Characteristics: less vine, bunched yield, easy shell. Resistance: fusarium wilt and root knot nematodes; tolerance to viruses. Similar: Newton Silverskin. Adaptation: wide. Mississippi Farm Research, December, 1965. 1966.

Monarch Blackeye - Breeder: Arkansas Agric. Expt. Sta., Fayetteville. Parentage: seedling obtained from J.F. Kragh. Characteristics: similar to Extra Early Blackeye, but slightly larger seed and longer pods. Adaptation: wide in the southern United States. Arkansas Farm Research Bul. 5, no.1, 1956. 1957.

Petite-N-Green (US-861) - Breeder: U. S. Vegetable Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Charleston, SC. Vendor: Western Seed Multiplication, Inc., Oglethorpe, GA (exclusive license). Parentage: Coronet x Bettergreen. Characteristics: low, bushy plant habit (similar to Coronet, but more procumbent than Charleston Greenpack); produces dry pods in 70 to 76 days (4 to 7 days later than Charleston Greenpack and 2 to 9 days later than Coronet and Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR); pod set is concentrated and the pods are borne at foliage level in a scattered fashion; typical pod is moderately curved, 14 cm long, and contains 14 peas; pod color is green when immature, and dark purple when ready for mature-green harvest and when dry; fresh peas are ovate to kidney shaped and have a pink eye (similar to Charleston Greenpack, Coronet, and Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR peas); dry peas are small (11.5% to 20.5% smaller than Charleston Greenpack, 10.9% to 24.6% smaller than Coronet peas, and 12.1% to 24.1% smaller than Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR peas) and have a smooth seed coat; homozygous for the gc gene conditioning the green cotyledon trait (peas can be harvested at the dry stage of maturity without loss of their fresh green color); yield is comparable to those of Charleston Greenpack, Coronet, and Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR. Adaptation: for use as a home-garden cultivar in the southeastern United States. PVP 9900074. HortScience 34:938-939, 1999. 1998.

Pickworth Pinkeye - Breeder: Auburn University, Auburn, AL. Parentage: not described. Characteristics: erect, determinate growth habit with limited lateral vines; pods are slightly curved, average 25 cm in length, are slightly constricted about the seed, have a glossy surface, produce about 14 seed per pod, and are borne concentrated above the plant; pod color is green when immature, changing to reddish-purple at the mature-green stage; the peas are kidney shaped, medium to large in size (18 to 24 g per 100 seed), and have a distinct, non-bleeding pink eye. Distinguished from Alagreen Pinkeye by the presence of both green and white seeds (approximately half of the plants produce peas with a dry green seed coat and the other half produce peas with a white seed coat). Adaptation: for use in Alabama "because of its special appeal to pick-your-own consumers, as well as fresh-market production for wholesale lots in the pod or retail sale of shelled peas." Ala. Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. Rpt. Ser. 11, p. 20 (April 1996).

Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR - Breeder: University of Georgia, Athens. Parentage: derived from a single plant in a Pinkeye Purple Hull population. Characteristics: plant, pod, and seed characteristics indistinguishable from Pinkeye Purple Hull. Resistance: blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. HortScience 19:592, 1984.

Princess Anne Blackeye (Virginia 59-8 Blackeye) - Breeder: Virginia Truck Expt. Sta., Norfolk. Parentage: Virginia 12 Purple Hull (California Blackeye 5 x Jackson PH) x California Blackeye 5. Characteristics: early, 60 day maturity to edible; small, bunch plant; no basal runners; determinate top runners if present (often none); concentrated bearing; pod length and seed size. Similar: California Blackeye 5, but not as viney. Wm.H. Brittingham, 24 September 1962.

Producer - Breeder and vendor: Florida Agric. Expt. Sta., Gainesville. Parentage: Korean Crowder x Alabunch. Characteristics: high yield, longer pods and larger bush than Dixielee, brown seed. Similar: Dixielee but later. Adaptation: southern United States. Florida Agric. Expt. Circ. S132. 1961.

Queen Anne (Va. 61-5-BE) - Breeder: Virginia Truck Expt. Sta., Norfolk. Vendor: Geo. Tait and Sons. Parentage: Virginia 12 (California Blackeye 5 x Jackson PH) x California Blackeye 5. Characteristics: bush, no runners, early concentrated set, pods bunched at foliage level, seed; like California Blackeye 5 but slightly smaller. Similar: Princess Anne. Vegetable Grower News, March, 1969.

Quickpick - Breeder: Louisiana State University, Calhoun Research Station, Calhoun, LA. Parentage: LA 88-74 x LA 88-9. Characteristics: bush-type plant habit with a synchronous pod set that is suitable for either hand- or machine-harvest; mature-green pods are straight, approximately 20 cm long, and purple in color; fresh peas are green with a light-pink eye; yield equal to or greater than yield of Texas Pinkeye Purple Hull in replicated machine harvest tests and comparable to yields of Texas Pinkeye Purple Hull, Coronet, Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR, Mississippi Pinkeye, and Santee Early Pinkeye in replicated hand-harvest tests; immune to a Georgia isolate of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. Adaptation: as a pinkeye purple hull-type cultivar for the fresh market. HortScience 34:447, 1999.

Royal Blackeye - Breeder: Louisiana State University, Calhoun. Vendor: Sun Seeds, Hollister, California. Parentage: complex, involves Calhoun Crowder, Blackeye, Bunch Purple Hull, Texas Cream 8, Louisiana Purchase. Characteristics: indeterminate, short vine plant habit; pods are straight, purple at the green shell stage, and 18.5 cm long; dry seeds are 8.3 mm long, oval, and weigh 19 gm per 100 seed; mature green peas have a smooth, light green testa with a black eye; 57-63 day maturity; good processing characteristics; good yield potential. Resistance: field tolerance to bacterial leaf blight and possibly mosaic virus. HortScience 23:933, 1988. 1985.

Santee Early Pinkeye (US-311) - Breeder: United States Vegetable Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Charleston, South Carolina. Parentage: complex, involves Coronet, Pinkeye Purple Hull, Iron, Alabama 963.8, and Alabama 562-9-2-6-1. Characteristics: plant habit is low bush, more compact than Coronet; pod color at the green shell stage, dark purple; fresh peas are kidney shaped and have a pink eye; dry peas have a smooth seed coat and are slightly smaller than those of Coronet; excellent processing characteristics. Similar: appearance, maturity, and yield potential to Coronet, but matures five to ten days earlier. Adaptation: the southeastern United States. HortScience 25:990-991, 1990. 1988.

Tender Cream (US-630) - Breeder: United States Vegetable Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Charleston, South Carolina. Parentage: product of backcross breeding program to transfer the Rk gene for root knot nematode resistance from Floricream into Carolina Cream. Characteristics: medium, bushy growth habit; concentrated pod set; pod color at green shell maturity, green with a distinct purple shading; typical pod is slightly curved, 14-16 cm long, and contains 12-14 peas; fresh peas are small, cream colored, and ovate to reniform shaped; high yield potential; excellent processing characteristics. Resistance: cowpea curculio, root knot nematodes, southern bean mosaic virus, cercospora leaf spot, southern blight, rust, and powdery mildew; field resistance to blackeye cowpea mosaic virus; tolerance to seedling diseases. Adaptation: southeastern United States. HortScience 31:(in press), 1996. 1955.

Texas Cream 40 - Breeder: Department of Hort., Texas A and M College, College Station. Parentage: Extra Early Blackeye x Commercial Cream. Characteristics: upright, pods well above foliage, early, prolific. Resistance: compares with leading cultivars as to disease resistance. Adaptation: wide, chiefly for southern United States. Texas Agric. Expt. Sta. Prog. Rpt. 1414. 1952.

Texas Pinkeye Purple Hull (Tx 220-4) - Breeder: Texas A and M University, College Station. Parentage: complex, involves Burgundy, Pinkeye Purple Hull, Purple Hull 49, Blackeye 8152, and US-432. Characteristics: erect plant habit, plants are 15-20 cm taller than standard pinkeye cultivars, plant habit lends itself to high plant population culture; pod color green and purple when immature, dark purple at green shell stage, and purple when dry; concentrated pod set; pods slightly curved; fresh peas have a slight kidney shape and a green color with a bright-pink eye; dry peas have smooth to slightly wrinkled, cream colored testa with a dark maroon eye; eye is slightly larger than that of Pinkeye Purple Hull; seeds smaller than those of Pinkeye Purple Hull, 18 gm per 100 seed. Generally 10 days earlier and higher yielding than Pinkeye Purple Hull and Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR; outstanding yield potential; outstanding freezing and canning characteristics. Resistance: root knot nematodes; immune to Georgia isolate of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus and some isolates of cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus, but susceptible to other isolates; tolerance to isolates from California and India; susceptible to rust, powdery mildew, and cercospora leaf spot. PVP. Adaptation: culture on highly calcareous soils. HortScience 29:926-927, 1994. 1990.

Texas Purple Hull 49 - Breeder: Department of Hort., Texas A and M College, College Station. Parentage: Extra Early Blackeye x Commercial Purple Hull. Characteristics: upright, pods held high, superior in production to all common cultivars tested with it, disease resistance equal or superior to leading cultivars. Adaptation: wide regional, especially the southern United States. Texas Agric. Expt. Sta. Prog. Rpt. 1313. 1952.

Topset - Breeder and vendor: Florida Agric. Expt. Sta., Gainesville. Parentage: complex. Characteristics: high quality, high borne pods for mechanical harvest; small cream Crowder for processing or home garden; light green pods, seeds larger than Lady Cream. Resistance: scab and probably cercospora. Similar: Lady Cream. Adaptation: southern United States. Vendor: in 1961. Florida Agric. Expt. Circ. S130.

White Acre-BVR - Breeder: University of Georgia, Athens. Parentage: derived from a single plant in a White Acre population. Characteristics: plant, pod, and seed characteristics indistinguishable from White Acre; small seeded, cream type. Resistance: blackeye cowpea mosaic virus. HortScience 19:592, 1984.

Worthmore - Breeder: University of Georgia, Tifton. Parentage: Mississippi Silver x Pinkeye Purple Hull. Characteristics: upright plant habit; pod color at green shell maturity, purple; typical pod is 18 cm long and contains 16 peas; green shell peas are light green with a slightly tan eye; dry seeds are light tan with a greenish tan eye and have a smooth testa; excellent yield potential; 63 day maturity; plants and pods similar to Pinkeye Purple Hull, and seeds very similar to Mississippi Silver; suited for home gardens, fresh market, and processing. Resistance: resistance or tolerance to cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, southern bean mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, and cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus. HortScience 11:621-622, 1976.

Zipper Cream (421-07) - Breeder: Florida Agric. Expt. Sta., Gainesville. Parentage: complicated; involves Korean Crowder, Mississippi 32, and Running Acre. Characteristics: high yield, cream crowder type, unpigmented seed coat and large seed size, easy hand shelling. Similar: standard crowders except for seed coat. Adaptation: general in southern pea area. University of Florida Circ. S210. 1972.

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